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    20 September 2020, Volume 36 Issue 9
    Comprehensive Review
    A survey of physical layer security in space-air-ground communication and networks
    Fuchao YAN,Yiliang LIU,Shuai HAN,Weixiao MENG
    2020, 36(9):  1-13.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020263
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    Space-air-ground communication and networks are the trend of wireless communication in the future.Because of its inherent broadcast nature and wide coverage,its communication and network systems will face serious security problems.How to ensure the security of space-air-ground communication and networks is an urgent problem to be solved.As an effective means of security,physical layer security technology has attracted more and more attentions.The basis of physical layer security and the channel model of space-air-ground communication and networks were introduced,and then the common technologies in physical layer security were introduced and summarized,such as wiretap coding,beamforming and artificial noise,relay cooperation interference and physical layer key generation,finally the challenges and future development trend of physical layer security in space-air-ground communication and networks were proposed.

    Research and Development
    Artificial intelligence driven 6G networks:endogenous intelligence
    Tong ZHANG,Yijing REN,Shi YAN,Mugen PENG
    2020, 36(9):  14-22.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020266
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    In order to meetthe requirements of intelligently adapting to the needs of human-machine-thing deep interconnection,the sixth-generation mobile communication system (6G) will be based on full spectrum,face all scenarios and support all services.Endogenous intelligence is the core component of 6G and an inevitable trend driving 5G evolution.The characteristics and compositions of artificial intelligence driven 6G endogenous intelligent networks were discussed.The key technologies of endogenous intelligent network and current status of industrial applications were also described.Further,domestic and foreign related progress and standardization works were introduced,and also position future challenges were prospected.

    Historical information based iterative soft Kalman time-varying channel estimation method
    Lu CHENG,Lihua YANG,Zenghao WANG,Jie ZHANG,Yan LIANG
    2020, 36(9):  23-31.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020038
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    For high-speed mobile MIMO-OFDM systems,a historical information based iterative soft-Kalman filter time-varying channel estimation method was proposed.Considering that the channels experienced by different trains in the high-speed railway environment have strong correlation,the channel information of the historical train was firstly used to obtain the optimal basis function,which can be employed to model the channel.By the optimal basis function,the computational complexity was reduced and the channel estimation accuracy was improved for the proposed method.Secondly,the soft-Kalman filter and data detection were jointed to estimate the base coefficient in each iteration.To reduce the effect of data detection error propagation on the channel estimation,the soft data detection scheme was employed and the soft detection error was treated as noise in each iteration.In addition,the soft-Kalman filter used in the proposed method does not involve the AR model tracking factor,thereby avoiding the computational complexity introduced by the estimated tracking factor.The simulation results show that the proposed method has better estimation performance,and is more suitable for time-varying channel acquisition of actual high-speed mobile scenarios.

    Intelligent and open new generation telecom service architecture and its key technologies
    Jianxin LIAO,Hao ZHANG,Tong XU,Lingfei NI,Jingyu WANG,Wenfu WU
    2020, 36(9):  32-43.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020262
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    For complex heterogeneous networks,IOTSA (intelligent and open telecom service architecture) based on the comprehensive decoupling of service systems was proposed,as well as core mechanisms such as intelligent scheduling of network resources,dynamic service orchestration and combination,and intelligent monitoring of abnormal behavior.Through the establishment of a three-level interface and four-layer capability opening architecture,multi-granular capability opening and comprehensive resource sharing were realized,which met the needs of multiple scenarios.Key technologies such as low-risk and low-cost rapid decoupling of service systems and dynamic coordination of multiple services were proposed.These achievements had formed a series of international standards and had been applied on a large scale on existing networks.By providing a large number of ultra-fine-grained capabilities,396 atomic capabilities,and flexible composite capabilities,the development of operator and third-party services and applications were strongly supported.

    Optimized BM3D for mmWave massive MIMO channel estimation
    Jiafeng QIU
    2020, 36(9):  44-50.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020136
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    Focused on the issue in which beamspace channel estimation is challenging for mmWave massive MIMO system when the number of RF chains is limited,a channel estimation scheme based on optimized BM3D was proposed.The MIMO channel matrix based on 3D lens-based can be regarded as a 2D natural image,and the image reconstruction technology was integrated into the channel estimation.BM3D was considered as one of the most accurate algorithms for image denoising ,while the grouping was realized by block-matching and collaborative filtering was accomplished by shrinkage in a 3D transform domain.Utilizing the sparsity feature of the channel and the clustering feature of the paths,the BM3D algorithm was optimized in order to improve the performance.Simulations are provided to show that proposed optimized BM3D scheme can achieve satisfactory accuracy in all considered SNR regions.

    A density clustering-based network performance failure big data analysis algorithm
    Xiang LI,Yuan LI,Zifei ZHANG,Zhe YANG
    2020, 36(9):  51-58.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020270
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    Facing frequent network security incidents,how to quickly find abnormal data in massive monitoring database and carry out network failure analysis becomes a research difficulty.A density-based network performance failure big data analysis algorithm was proposed,which extracted key performance characteristic indicators through entropy weight analysis,implemented data shaping through data cleaning and standardization,and extracted abnormal performance data on the basis of DBSCAN clustering algorithm.Relying on the real-time massive backbone network link performance data of multiple domestic operators to validated this algorithm,the results shows that compared with the manually manner,the recognition accuracy of the algorithm proposed to the network performance abnormal data is more than 90%,which can well fit for the analysis of real-time Internet network operation failure.

    AMC based IP microwave technology
    Weihe DONG,Xiaokun LI,Hongxu CHEN,Siyan ZHANG,Yiran SUN,Chuanyue YU
    2020, 36(9):  59-66.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020180
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    IP microwave technology is a new transmission technology,which uses IP technology to transmit data signals in the microwave field.It has the advantages of fast deployment rate,flexible installation,convenient transport and efficient data transmission,and has become a common ground wireless transmission system with large capacity.An environmental model of microwave transmission was proposed and discussed.The model used IP network as the return transmission,which was helpful for the development of general network of wireless access system.The prototype design of UHF band microwave/Internet protocol (IP) network interface was carried out,and the conversion of the three major functional modules in the network were described,to realize the broadband integrated services digital transmissions.The results show that the ground transmission signal (DTMB) can efficiently transmit on the IP network,and the monitoring/truncation of the microwave signal can significantly reduce the network throughput as needed.

    Operation Technology
    Research on intelligent cloud native architecture and key technologies for cloud and network integration
    Gang LU,Changyi CHEN,Zelong HUANG,Zeyuan HUANG
    2020, 36(9):  67-74.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020269
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    Cloud native technology,as the latest technology achievement of cloud computing,promotes internet and enterprise application to cloud.Cloud native technology can provide more economical and convenient deployment and operation methods for communication operator network.With the promotion of cloud and network integration of operators,cloud native is the core technology and key grasp of operators’ network cloud.The application and problems of cloud native technology were analyzed,an intelligent cloud native architecture for cloud and network integration was proposed,evolution design,architecture deployment scheme and key technologies were studied,and cloud native promotion measures were prospected.

    Service platform architecture reconstruction based on microservices
    Dongliang GUAN
    2020, 36(9):  75-83.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020265
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    Business platform reconfiguration is one of the important measures to undertake China Telecom’s CTNet 2025 plan,implement network reconfiguration and promote network intelligence.The problems existing in the business platform were analyzed,and the evolution goal of taking micro-service as the core concept were put forward,standardizing the general framework and open standards of the platform,and reconstructing the software framework of the business platform.And through the establishment and improvement of basic platforms,standardization and promotion of micro-service transformation of business/application platforms,resource planning and environmental deployment plans,the specific restructuring work was promoted.The resource utilization rate,development efficiency,automatic resource scheduling,deployment efficiency and other aspects of the platforms before and after the reconfiguration were compared and analyzed,and the initial results of the implementation of the business platform reconfiguration were given.Reference for the planning,development and deployment of similar platforms in the industry was provided.

    Design and research of clearing-settlement platform based on blockchain technology
    Shuting LI,Jinke LIU,Na CHEN
    2020, 36(9):  84-93.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020139
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    The business status of domestic roaming and clearing services of telecom operators and the problems and challenges faced after the arrival of 5G were analyzed.The blockchain technology represented by distributed ledgers and smart contracts were introduced,and the domestic clearing-settlement platform based on blockchain technology was formulated.The solution was elaborated from the logic architecture,business architecture,transaction flow and scalability of the clearing platform.Finally,based on the landing plan of the domestic clearing platform,combined with the business development needs under the new situation,the design ideas of partner settlement,inter-network settlement and international roaming settlement were provided.

    Application of wireless LoRa in multi-service state grid e-ubiquitous power internet of things
    Wei LIU,Yanli ZHAGN,Jie LIU,Lijuan XING
    2020, 36(9):  94-101.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020156
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    The “multi-service state grid e-ubiquitous power internet of things” proposed by the State Grid Corporation of China is the integration and evolution of the energy network and the internet of things,and is a key energy infrastructure serving the majority of users.With the rise of the power internet of things strategy,the online monitoring and acquisition nodes and monitoring scale of transmission lines will increase rapidly.What kind of technical system will be used to construct the on-site communication network? It is important to consider multiple factors such as long distance,low power consumption,and high reliability.The characteristics and advantages of wireless LoRa technology was researched,combined with the application scenarios and requirements of on-line transmission line monitoring,the schemes of online monitoring base on wireless LoRa networking were proposed and adaptability was analyzed ,the research results have certain reference significance in this field.

    Research and design of multi-tenant scheme for Kubernetes container cloud platform
    Danchi HUANG,Zhenwei HE,Liyun YAN,Yuanzhi LIN,Xinzhang YANG
    2020, 36(9):  102-111.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020187
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    In the container cloud platform,tenants share the underlying computing,storage,network and other resources,and there are problems with the operation of the tenant container and data security.Based on the analysis of Kubernetes scheme based on access control and resource isolation,a multi-tenant cloud platform was proposed,which covers multi-tenancy management model,multi-tenant access control,computing resources isolated and network resources,etc.The proposed model can be practically improving resource isolation capability based on containers of Kubernetes cloud platform,effectively reduce the data security hidden danger.

    Topic:5G Commercial and Evolution
    A review of key technologies for the future of the 2030 network——Beyond 5G
    Ziyu XIAO
    2020, 36(9):  114-121.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020271
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    ITU-T SG13 established a Focus Group of Network 2030 in 2018 for a two-year study period.FG NET-2030 focuses on the network requirements,scenarios and the network capabilities of the future network,and proposes the key technologies and study directions of the next study period in SG13.Focus on key technology development directions that the industry pays more attention,the network requirements and key technologies of the ITU-T Future Network Architecture Working Group for Beyond 5G and Network 2030 was tracked.The network requirements and challenges for 2030 was summarized,and the key technologies and evolution trends of deterministic networks,new IP architectures,the network-based machine learning architectures and a use case of machine learning applications in 5G network were analyzed.

    Key technologies and development of 5G bearer network
    Peiyong MA,Wei WU,Wenqiang ZHANG,Guangming YANG,Feng YANG
    2020, 36(9):  122-130.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020245
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    5G will have significant changes in business scenarios,access network,core network and other aspects.It puts forward the requirements of “larger bandwidth,ultra-low delay and high reliability” for bearer network,as well as new requirements for network slicing and flexible networking.Combined with the STN architecture,the key technologies of STN were analyzed,such as SRv6,FlexE,flow detection,intelligent control,etc.,and the STN and SPN were compared,and the specific bearing scheme of STN 5G service was given,which met the differentiated bearing of 5G 2B and 2C services.

    5G core network deployment and evolution scheme
    Xu YANG,Ziyu XIAO,Bing LIANG,Le LI
    2020, 36(9):  131-140.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020268
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    Firstly,the disadvantages of NSA networking based on the 5G commercial situation of domestic operators were analyzed,it was suggested to control NSA investment and carry out 5G network construction with SA as the goal.Then based on combing the progress of 5G core network standard and the main changes of R16 standard,the commercial deployment of 5G SA core network based on regional network cloud and the following 2G/4G/5G convergence evolution planning and deployment proposal was analyzed,it included the commercial deployment suggestions of 5G edge computing nodes and the subsequent planning and construction suggestions.It was suggested that the planning and construction of 2G/4G/5G integrated networking should be carried out as soon as possible,in order to effectively protect investment,reduce the complexity of networking and maintenance,realize the target architecture of full cloud deployment of control plane and distributed sinking deployment of user plane.It provides reference for the construction of 5G SA core network.

    Performance analysis of NSA control plane and user plane delay in 5G network
    Dan ZHANG,Lei WANG,Xiaoqi WANG,Siyu XI
    2020, 36(9):  141-147.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020260
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    Different from 2G/3G/4G,the 5G network architecture contains two parts:NSA (non-standalone) and SA (standalone) networking.NSA can help network deploys faster.Low latency is a very important feature of 5G,and its implementation requires a combination of technologies.Based on the 2.6 GHz NR frame structure,combined with theoretical analysis and real case,the current situation and problems of control plane delay and user plane delay were discussed,and the delay optimization method was provided,which provided the corresponding ideas and suggestions for NSA network deployment.

    5G network co-construction and sharing mode
    Yuhua HU,Yingqi TANG,Bei LI
    2020, 36(9):  148-153.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020163
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    With the large-scale commercial deployment of 5G,the problems of high unit price of 5G network equipment,large construction investment,high power consumption of equipment and high operation cost are increasingly prominent.In addition to high-quality construction,improving the operation efficiency and efficiency of 5G network,and building and sharing become a new mode of network construction and operation explored by operators.5G network co-construction and sharing from the aspects of network architecture and frequency use were analyzed,and three kinds of network co-construction and sharing technology schemes were put forward:independent carrier,shared carrier and different network roaming.The advantages and disadvantages of each scheme were compared,and the applicable scenarios were analyzed,the current challenges were pointed out.It was summarized how to choose a reasonable deployment mode to promote co construction and sharing.

    5G carrier network data collection and security management evolution ideas
    Huifang HOU,Xuefang LI,Jie PAN,Zhigang DING
    2020, 36(9):  154-159.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020272
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    Operators collect user data by deploying DPI system at some network node,and combining with the security control system to achieve an operator-level security operation and management system.The new architecture,technologies and services of the 5G network meet the unprecedented demands of connection,but also bring new security risks.The evolution of the data collection scheme of the carrier network was mainly discussed under the background of 5G network,as well as the innovative ideas of content security and network security systems that follow.

    Edge computing business model and key solutions for its landing and deployment
    Yuan ZHAO,Bing XIN,Hongyuan MA,Lifeng CHEN
    2020, 36(9):  160-171.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020274
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    Edge computing is an innovation of network architecture and business model for operators.5G edge computing node is composed of 5G UPF and edge computing platform.It can be deployed at different levels of the network based on the demand for bandwidth,delay and local streaming.In the perspective of 5G application scenarios,depending on edge computing can meet the customer needs of differentiated vertical industries and seize the market opportunities,which is a sharp tool for operators to enter the vertical industry.The business model,billing scheme,landing deployment strategy and scheme of edge computing deployment were mainly studied,including business scenario,infrastructure,hardware system,site selection methodology,construction scheme,peripheral networking scheme,etc.

    Application and farmework of BaaS platform based on blockchain
    Lei QI,Hao ZHU,Huiqiong GU,Xu CHEN,Bo HU
    2020, 36(9):  172-178.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2020267
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    To eliminate the interrelated operational effects of complex and long chains in the telecom industry,and to solve the problem of data consistency guarantee such as reconciliation and liquidation.A blockchain-based BaaS platform was designed,a permissioned blockchain with user information was deployed,and a trusted blockchain ledger was built.It realizes the trust,security and fairness mechanism in telecommunication industry.

Copyright Information
Authorized by: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Institute of Communications
Posts and Telecom Press Co., Ltd.
Publisher: Beijing Xintong Media Co., Ltd.
Editor-in-Chief: Chen Shanzhi
Editorial Director: Wu Nada
Address: F8, You Dian Publisher Building, No.11, Chengshousi Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, China
Postal Code: 100078
Tel: 010-81055306
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ISSN 1000-0801
CN 11-2103/TN
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