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    20 June 2022, Volume 38 Issue 6
    Topic: New Network Technology
    Revolution of the development paradigm of network technology system—network of networks
    Jiangxing WU
    2022, 38(6):  3-12.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022140
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    Polyphyly and diversity are the first criterion of the development of the universe.At present, the development of network technology has not been divorced from the basic paradigm of self-evolution based on a single system or self-replacement, which has greatly restricted the innovation demand of the network technology system and related services characterized with “human-network-thing” as the object, the integration of computing, storage and transmission as the means, and multi-dimensional and multi-dimensional integrated new world.From the perspective of thinking and methodology, a multimodal network development paradigm that separates the network technology system from the supporting environment was proposed.Combined with the scenarios of cloud computing, the new modes and application scenarios of polymorphic network business operation were prospected.

    Laws of computing power in the computing power era
    Zhengmao LI, Guirong WANG
    2022, 38(6):  13-17.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022141
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    From the perspective of the growing demand for computing power, it was pointed out that the construction of ubiquitous, green, trusty, intelligent and agile computing power facilities was an inevitable choice for enterprises, regions and countries.The digital information infrastructure with the core of computing power will directly affect the development speed of the digital economy and the development height of social intelligence.Driven by both policy and demand, the arrival of era with “the laws of computing power” as the underlying operating rules is the general trend.Computing power will promote the high-quality development of the digital economy, by replacing electricity and heat as a new type of productivity, and promote unprecedented changes in society, life and scientific research.

    Interconnection and coexistence of heterogeneous network:requirements, challenges, and architecture
    Hongbin LUO, Shan ZHANG, Zhiyuan WANG
    2022, 38(6):  18-30.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022132
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    With the rapid development of the network technology and applications, many networks with different types of topologies and services have been emerging, such as Internet, satellite Internet, industrial Internet, unmanned aerial vehicle swarm network, and vehicle Internet, forming a situation in which many differentiated network systems coexist, to this end, the requirements and challenges were elaborated for heterogeneous networks to be integrated and coexist.Then CoLoR, an architecture for securely and efficiently interconnect heterogeneous networks was introduced.Based on the consistent function (i.e., information transmission) among heterogeneous network systems, CoLoR introduces multi-dimensional namespace for the universal representation.Moreover, CoLoR decouples the intra-domain routing and the inter-domain routing to ensure the evolution ability.Finally, CoLoR also constructs an efficient cross-domain communication mode and a security guarantee mechanism.

    Cloud native network creating a new era of intelligent application
    Xiaolan WAN, Jinglin LI, Kebin LIU
    2022, 38(6):  31-41.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022130
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    With the continuous emergence of new applications such as holographic multimedia, integration of space, air and ground, metaverse and social Internet of things, the development of business applications moved towards digitalization, integration, bandwidth and intelligence, which correspondingly puts forward new demands for the transformation of the network.Through the research and analysis of future network characteristics, combined with the characteristics of the cloud native network, the cloud native advantage can be used to meet the needs of current hot business applications.The general architecture of the cloud native network was proposed.The capabilities of data plane, control plane and management plane were defined.Finally, the typical and hot application cases of the cloud native network were given.

    Progress in programmable network data plane
    Xinyi ZHANG, Heng PAN, Gaogang XIE
    2022, 38(6):  42-50.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022131
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    Network data plane performs packet processing and forwarding, which is one of the core factors determining the network performance.High bandwidth, low latency and rapid evolution of the network infrastructure require building an efficient and programmable network data plane.The packet processing and forwarding model was firstly introduced, and on this basis, the challenges of the network data plane in the performance and programmability were outlined.Then the basic ideas and core technology progress were elaborated to deal with the above challenges by analyzing the theory of packet processing algorithms and hardware-software codesign implementations.Finally, the trend and technical route of constructing an efficient programmable data plane were discussed.

    Development status and trend prospect of computing power infrastructure
    Wenjuan XING, Bo LEI, Qianying ZHAO
    2022, 38(6):  51-61.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022137
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    The development of digital technology drives the change and revolution of computing power infrastructure.The computing power infrastructure mainly referes to hardware and software infrastructure related to cloud computing, edge computing, end computing, as well as cutting-edge computing power infrastructure such as quantum computing.Firstly, the basic computing hardware and software facilities were discussed, and the development of data center towards diversification, intelligence, and greening was summarized.Secondly, the current technologies and development trends of cloud computing, edge computing and end computing were discussed.The form of the computing power infrastructure has developed from typical intensive cloud computing to multi-level, ubiquitous, converged cloud-edge-end computing.Finally, the current technologies and development of quantum computing were summarized, which was regarded as the key technologies of the next generation information revolution, with a view to provide reference for the research and development of computing power infrastructure.

    Analysis of some key technical problems in the development of computing power network
    Tao HE, Zhendong YANG, Chang CAO, Yan ZHANG, Xiongyan TANG
    2022, 38(6):  62-70.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022147
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    The current development status of domestic and foreign computing power network technology was introduced.The key technology of the computing power network was described.The problems which were encountered in the development and practice of the computing power network technology were deeply analyzed from five aspects and the preliminary solutions were proposed.The five aspects include the computing power measurement and computing power modeling, the routing decision based on the computing power information, the computing power collaboration of cloud-edge-end, the integration of cloud and network based on service, and the computing power network information security.

    Computing satellite networks—the novel development of computing-empowered space-air-ground integrated networks
    Pingke DENG, Tongxu ZHANG, Nanxiang SHI, Tong ZHANG, Tianzhu SHAO, Shaowen ZHENG
    2022, 38(6):  71-81.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022138
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    Facing the increasing demands for computing ability and network access, the space-air-ground integrated networks in 6G systems is expected to surmount the limits on a single point of computing ability and traditional network transmission through the advantages of network cluster, where the novel space-air-ground integrated networks that deeply integrate cloud, edge, terminal, network, data, and computation is subsequently formed by taking computing ability as the core and network infrastructure as the foundation.Initially, the current situation and development in existing computing force networks and space-air-ground integrated networks (SAGIN) was introduced.Along with the demands for 6G computing-empowered space-air-ground integrated networks, the concept of satellite computing networks was defined and the co-existed system of computing capability and communication networks was further discussed.Then, the space networks, air networks, and ground networks of the layered satellite computing network architecture were discussed.Based on that, its logical network architecture that includes computing resource layer, computing abstract layer, and computing orchestration layer was further introduced.After that, the key technology enablers with respct to computing and storage issue, trusted transmission issue, satellite computing force addressing issue, and high-mobility computing force routing issue was discussed.Finally, the typical applicaiton scenarios of satellite computing networks and envision its future was presented.

    Research and Development
    Value-difference learning based mMTC devices access algorithm in multi-cell network
    Xin LI, Jun SUN
    2022, 38(6):  82-90.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022152
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    In the massive machine type communication scenario of 5G, the access congestion problem of massive machine type communication devices (mMTCD) in multi-cell network is very important.A double deep Q network with value-difference based exploration (VDBE-DDQN) algorithm was proposed.The algorithm focused on the solution that could reduce the collision when a number of mMTCDs accessed to eNB in multi-cell network.The state transition process of the deep reinforcement learning algorithm was modeled as Markov decision process.Furthermore, the algorithm used a double deep Q network to fit the target state-action value function, and it employed an exploration strategy based on value-difference to adapt the change of the environment, which could take advantage of both current conditions and expected future needs.Moreover, each mMTCD updated the probability of exploration according to the difference between the current value function and the next value function estimated by the network, rather than using the same standard to select the best base eNB for the mMTCD.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the access success rate of the system.

    Spoofing speech detection algorithm based on joint feature and random forest
    Jiaqi YU, Zhihua JIAN, Jia XU, Lin YOU, Yunlu WANG, Chao WU
    2022, 38(6):  91-99.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022089
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    In order to describe the characteristic information of the speech signal more comprehensively and improve the detection rate of camouflage, a spoofing speech detection method based on the combination of uniform local binary pattern texture feature and constant Q cepstrum coefficient acoustic feature was proposed, which used random forest as the classifier model.The texture feature vector in the speech signal spectrogram was extracted by using the uniform local binary mode, and the joint feature was formed with the constant Q cepstrum coefficient.Then, the obtained joint feature vector was used to train the random forest classifier, so as to realize the camouflage speech detection.In the experiment, the performances of several spoofing detection systems constructed by other feature parameters and the support vector machine classifier model were compared, and the results show that the proposed speech spoofing detection system combined with the joint feature and the random forest model has the best performance.

    Characteristics of simplified frequency-domain Volterra series based S-mode receiver
    Fengxun GONG, Jiankun LI
    2022, 38(6):  100-110.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022153
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    The nonlinear characteristics of multilateration(MLAT) system were analyzed by simplified frequency-domain Volterra series when the S-mode signal response pulse was input.Firstly, take the typical super heterodyne receiver system for example, the model based on simplified frequency-domain Volterra series and error rate model of MLAT system were explored and created.Secondly, the S-mode response pulse signal model based on kernel function was researched and established.Finally, the model error rate of S-mode signal receiver system based on simplified frequency-domain Volterra series was analyzed when the S-mode signal based on kernel function was input.The results show that the minimum error rate of the receiver system based on 15 dB SNR simplified frequency-domain Volterra series is less than 23.23% when the S-mode signal based on kernel function is input.When the actual S-mode test signal with 16.25 dB SNR is input, the minimum error rate of the model is less than 22%, which is less than the error rate threshold.It shows that the receiver system model based on simplified frequency-domain Volterra series can accurately describe the characteristics of S-mode signal receiver system, which provides the theoretical foundation for the identification of preamble arrival timestamp in MLAT system.

    An empirical analysis of the relationship between innovation efficiency and scale of Internet companies
    Shanshan ZHANG, Fuyun WANG
    2022, 38(6):  111-119.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022135
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    26 Internet-listed companies were selected, data envelopment method and regression analysis were used to conduct an empirical analysis on the innovation efficiency of Internet companies and its relationship with scale.The research results show that the Internet industry belongs to a high level of innovation industry.The innovation efficiency has shown a fluctuating downward trend in the past five years, and the business model innovation efficiency is higher than the technological innovation efficiency.There is an “inverted U” relationship between the scale of Internet companies and the level of innovation.Properly increasing the scale of enterprises will help enterprises to innovate, however, the benefits and innovation efficiency brought about by scale growth will not continue to grow.Internet companies should expand rationally.Above conclusions provide data support for the high-quality development of Internet companies and for the formulation of relevant national supervision and regulation policies.

    Location services and technologies of 5G-Advanced network
    Ming AI, Yunjing HOU, Runze ZHOU, Mao CAI
    2022, 38(6):  120-130.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022042
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    The Release15 (Rel-15) of the 5G standard developed by 3GPP only supports the location service requirements of emergency services.The standardization of 5G location service network architecture, network element functions, end-to-end process design, positioning reference signals, measurement quantities, measurement processes, etc, has been completed in Rel-16, which is the complete version of location services that supporting business scenarios.In Rel-17, further reduction of the location service delay and improving the positioning accuracy are achieved.The 3GPP will start Rel-18 location service and positioning study in 2022, which mainly includes further improving positioning performance index, such as lower delay, and lower power and higher accuracy positioning, and further expanding positioning functions, such as supporting sidelink positioning, user plane positioning and UE (user equipment) location verification optimization of satellite access scenarios.Based on the introduction of the status of Rel-15/Rel-16/Rel-17 location services, some potential key technologies for realizing Rel-18 location services were put forward and analyzed.Then, the summary that the positioning requirements of 6G network are higher accuracy support the positioning of higher speed scenarios and support more vertical industries and scenarios was pointed out.Artificial intelligence and terahertz communication will become potential key technologies to realize 6G higher accuracy location services.

    An approach of LTE measurement report based 2.1 GHz and 3.5 GHz 5G SA coverage evaluation
    Jianxian LU, Jiqiu HUANG, Mingxing HU, Henghua LIN
    2022, 38(6):  131-142.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022032
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    2.1 GHz refarming is a key issue for the evolution of 5G network.Limitations of network simulation were analyzed.Since most of 5G sites were co-sited with LTE and adopted the same or similar engineering parameters, an approach of 2.1 GHz and 3.5 GHz 5G SA network coverage evaluation was proposed.A co-site coverage differential model between 2.1 GHz and 3.5 GHz 5G SA was given and its accuracy was verified by field trial.Then the coverage of two frequencies were predicted based on LTE MR, the differential model and the uplink rate curve relative to link loss.The evaluation instance indicates only 1.3~5.2 pp coverage gain is achieved at uplink rate between 1 Mbit/s and 10 Mbit/s by refarming 2.1 GHz within 20 MHz bandwidth, because of the 10 dB margin of LTE coverage.

    Engineering and Application
    A pilot study of Telco’s next generation IT architecture evolution: business function virtualization (BFV)
    Wen QIAO, Xiaozheng WANG, Zhenqiang SUN, Gan REN, Yunxin LIU, Aidong YANG, Peng WANG, Da WANG, Xiaozhou YE, Ye OUYANG
    2022, 38(6):  143-155.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022093
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    With the development of information and communication technologies, traditional telecom business support systems (BSS) are facing the challenge of agilely meeting the flexible needs from business.Application scenarization, service standardization, technology componentization and resource sharing have gradually become the consensual features among the evolution of telecom BSS architectures.A business function virtualization (BFV)-based BSS architecture, which is based on cloud-native, micro-services, containers, and DevOps technologies, was proposed.By embedding four components into the architecture, including standardized virtual network functions, modular design orchestrator, micro-service management framework, and multi-plane elastic computing controller, the system is able to deploy unitized system and distributed cloud.Therefore, the requirements of flexible telecom business development and frequent evolution of the system could be satisfied by the proposed BFV-based BSS architecture.In other words, the lightweight delivery of IT technologies and agile business support could be fulfilled by using the proposed BFV-based BSS architecture, and the proposed architecture will eventually become the standard architecture of next generation telecom BSS.

    Research on the application of 700 MHz frequency band in 5G network optimization
    Yejiang ZHANG, Lei SUN, Yiyan YIN, Xiaokang YANG, Jian HU
    2022, 38(6):  156-163.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022083
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    The 700 MHz frequency band has the advantages of low frequency, strong diffraction ability, and good coverage effect.China Mobile and China Radio and Television had made it clear that they would jointly build and share 5G networks based on 700 MHz frequency band resources.Firstly, the coverage advantages of 700 MHz frequency band were analyzed theoretically, and then the pilot projects such as 700 MHz 5G station continuous road coverage test, residential building coverage performance test and fixed-point capacity performance test provided data support for the subsequent 700 MHz 5G network construction and optimization.It could release the value of 700 MHz gold spectrum to the greatest extent and continuously improve the quality of 5G wireless network from the aspects of actively avoiding 700 MHz radio and television frequency interference, giving full play to the advantages of high and low frequency networking schemes, and actively exploring multi band collaborative optimization strategies.

    Research on remote interference analysis and solution for 5G
    Yujie LI
    2022, 38(6):  164-171.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022143
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    Remote interference mainly comes from the atmospheric ducting transmission.It is one of the reasons for the deterioration of the fifth-generation new radio (5G NR) mobile networks.Based on the analysis of the generation mechanism for the remote interference, two solution schemes were accordingly described for the remote interference management.The static increase GP (guard period) scheme was verified in the 5G NR network in areas with high atmospheric wares.Network operation data shows that the increasing guard period could avoid remote interference efficiently and thus improve the quality of the fifth-generation new radio networks.

    Construction scheme analysis of computing force network
    Lili WANG
    2022, 38(6):  172-180.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022134
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    The government puts forward higher requirements for the deployment of computing force network (CFN), so the telecom operators accelerate the implementation of computing network integration.Aiming to solve the problems of computing and network coordination and scheduling, based on the study of standards related to CFN, the research progress of CFN was summarized, the business requirements of CFN were analyzed, combined with the current reality of telecom operators, the deployment scheme of sustainable construction of CFN was put forward, which concerned with computing power reserve, transmission network, network routing and intelligent scheduling, it provides a reference for the early stage of CFN construction.

    Discussion on the issues of applying OTN in power grid communications
    Xinnan CHEN, Weihua LIAN, Yining MA
    2022, 38(6):  181-189.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022149
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    With the gradual increase in the demand for communication bandwidth in the electric power grid, the application of optical transport network (OTN) in electric power communication has become increasingly extensive and in-depth.A series of problems to be solved have been found in the application process.The long-haul transmission problem, the interruption problem of OTN with polarization multiplexing carried by OPGW which is caused by lightning strikes, the problem of mismatch between trend of service requirement development and functions combination of OTN equipment.The background and principles of the above three issues were briefly sorted out and introduced.The forward and backward Raman amplifiers and remote optical pumping amplifiers were applied in the practical OTN system construction project.Theoretical calculations of the optical power distribution along the fiber were carried out and verified by field measured data, which quantitatively proved the gain of amplifiers mentioned above on the single-span transmission distance of OTN systems.The speed of the rotation of SOP caused by natural lightning strikes was theoretically estimated and measured in the practical OTN system.A test method for the SOP tracking ability of the OTN systems was proposed and carried out.An idea of applying the pakect optical transport network (POTN) to imporve the flexibility of OTN bandwidth administration was proposed.

Copyright Information
Authorized by: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Institute of Communications
Posts and Telecom Press Co., Ltd.
Publisher: Beijing Xintong Media Co., Ltd.
Editor-in-Chief: Chen Shanzhi
Editorial Director: Wu Nada
Address: F8, You Dian Publisher Building, No.11, Chengshousi Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, China
Postal Code: 100078
Tel: 010-81055306
        010-81055459
E-mail: dxkx@ptpress.com.cn
Mailing Code: 2-397
ISSN 1000-0801
CN 11-2103/TN
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