Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets have continued to grow in recent years.Nowadays, people rely on these ubiquitous smart devices and carry them everywhere in their daily lives.Acoustic signal, as a simple and prevalent transmitting vector for end-to-end communication, shows unique characteristics comparing with another popular communication method, i.e., optical signal, especially on the applications performed over smart devices.Acoustic signal does not require lineof-sight when transmission, the computational power of most smart devices are sufficient to modulate/demodulate acoustic signal using software acoustic modem only, which can be easily deployed on current off-the-shelf smart devices.Therefore, many acoustics-based short range communication systems have been developed and are used in sensitive applications such as building access control and mobile payment system.However, past work shows that an acoustic eavesdropper snooping on the communication between a transmitter and its legitimate receiver can easily break their communication protocol and decode the transmitted information.To solve this problem, many solutions have been proposed to protect the acoustic signal against eavesdroppers.In this overview, we explore the designs of existing solutions, the corresponding implementations, and their methodologies to protect acoustic signal communication.For each dependable and secure acoustics-based short range communication system, we present the major technical hurdles to be overcome, the state-of-the-art, and also offer a vision of the future research issues on this promising technology.
Figure1 System model for acoustics-based short-range communication system.
Figure2 System workflow for PriWhisper
Figure3 Model of BSS system
Figure4 Acoustic self-Jamming communication Architecture
Figure5 System workflow for PriWhisper
CHEN S , LI M , QIN Z ,et al. AcousAuth:an acoustic-based mobile application for user authentication[C]// IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 2014: 215-216.
ZHANG B , ZHAN Q , CHEN S ,et al. Enabling keyless secure acoustic communication for smartphones[J].IEEE internet of things journal, 2014,1(1): 33-45.
NANDAKUMAR R , CHINTALAPUDI K K , PADMANABHAN V ,et al. Dhwani:secure peer-to-peer acoustic NFC[C]// ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 2013,43(4): 63-74.
WEI T , WANG S , ZHOU A ,et al. Acoustic eavesdropping through wireless vibrome-try[C]// The 21st Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2015: 130-141.
KORTVEDT H , MJOLSNES S . Eavesdropping near field communication[C]// 2009:57.The Norwegian Information Security Conference (NISK), 2009:57
GOEL S , NEGI R . Guaranteeing secrecy using artificial noise[J]. IEEE transactions on wireless communications, 2008,7(6): 2180-9.
KUMAR S , UMA M K , KUMAR K . Peer-to-peer acoustic near field communication[J]. IOSR journal of electronics and communication engineering.
SKLAR B . Digital communications[M]. Upper Saddle River: Prentice HallPress, 2001.
STUART J R . Noise:methods for estimating detectability and threshold[J]. Journal of the audio engineering society, 1994,42(3): 124-40.
MA D , SAXENA N , XIANG T ,et al. Location-aware and safer cards:enhancing RFID security and privacy via location sensing[J]. IEEE transactions on dependable and secure computing, 2013,10(2): 57-69.
SCHRMANN D , SIGG S . Secure communication based on ambient audio[J]. IEEE transactions on mobile computing, 2013,12(2): 358-70.
HALEVI T , MA D , SAXENA N ,et al. Secure proximity detection for NFC devices based on ambient sensor data in computer security C ESORICS 2012[M]. Berlin: Springer Berlin HeidelbergPress, 2012:379-396.
BRANDS S , CHAUM D . Distance-bounding protocols[C]// Workshop on the Theory and Application of of Cryptographic Techniques, 1993:344-359.
KRUMM J , HINCKLEY K . The nearme wireless proximity server[C]// InInternational Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, 2004: 283-300.
LI L , XUE G , ZHAO X . The Power of Whispering:Near Field Assertions via Acoustic Communications[C]// The 10th ACM y on Information,Computer and Communications Security, 2015: 627-632.
STOJANOVIC M , BEAUJEAN P P . Acoustic communication[R]. DOI 10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2552538,IEEE Access, 2016.