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    1. Overview of 5G modulation and waveforms candidates
    Maziar NEKOVEE,Yue WANG,Milos TESANOVIC,Shangbin WU,Yinan QI,Mohammed AL-IMARI
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (1): 44-60.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.008
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    The 5G (fifth generation) mobile communications aim to support a large versatile type of services with different and often diverging requirements, which has posed significant challenges on the design of 5G systems.Modulation and waveforms are one of the key physical layer componentsthat determine the system throughput, reliability, and complexity, therefore their design is critical in meeting the variety requirements of 5G services.A comprehensive overview was presented on the modulation and waveforms that have been considered for their potential application to 5G in the literature, identifying their design requirements, and discussing their advantages to meet such requirements.Additional considerations that extend our view to higher layer aspects and air interface harmonization are provided as the final remarks.As a result of this article, it is hopeful to draw greater attentions from the readers on this important topic, and trigger further studies on the promising modulation and waveform candidates.

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    2. Survey of wireless big data
    Qian Lijun,Zhu Jinkang,Zhang Sihai
    通信与信息网络学报    2017, 2 (1): 1-18.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-017-0001-2
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    Abstract:Wireless big data describes a wide range of massive data that is generated,collected and stored in wireless networks by wireless devices and users.While these data share some common properties with traditional big data,they have their own unique characteristics and provide numerous advantages for academic research and practical applications.This article reviews the recent advances and trends in the field of wireless big data.Due to space constraints,this survey is not intended to cover all aspects in this field,but to focus on the data aided transmission,data driven network optimization and novel applications.It is expected that the survey will help the readers to understand this exciting and emerging research field better.Moreover,open issues and promising future directions are also identified.

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    3. Architecture and key technologies for Internet of Vehicles:a survey
    Yang Fangchun,Li Jinglin,Lei Tao,Wang Shangguang
    通信与信息网络学报    2017, 2 (2): 1-17.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-017-0018-6
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    In recent years,IoV (Internet of Vehicles) has become one of the most active research fields in network and intelligent transportation system.As an open converged network,IoV plays an important role in solving various driving and traffic problems by advanced information and communications technology.We review the existing notions of IoV from different perspectives.Then,we provide our notion from a network point of view and propose a novel IoV architecture with four layers.Particularly,a novel layer named coordinative computing control layer is separated from the application layer.The novel layer is used for solving the coordinative computing and control problems for human-vehicle-environment.After summarizing the key technologies in IoV architecture,we construct a VV (Virtual Vehicle),which is an integrated image of driver and vehicle in networks.VVs can interact with each other in cyber space by providing traffic service and sharing sensing data coordinately,which can solve the communication bottleneck in physical space.Finally,an extended IoV architecture based on VVs is proposed.

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    4. On the architecture and development life cycle of secure cyber-physical systems
    Cong SUN,Jianfeng MA,Qingsong YAO
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (4): 1-21.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.041
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    Cyber-physical systems are being confronted with an ever-increasing number of security threats from the complicated interactions and fusions between cyberspace and physical space.Integrating security-related activities into the early phases of the development life cycle is a monolithic and cost-effective solution for the development of security-critical cyber-physical systems.These activities often incorporate security mechanisms from different realms.We present a fine-grained design flow paradigm for security-critical and software-intensive cyber-physical systems.We provide a comprehensive survey on the domain-specific architectures, countermeasure techniques and security standards involved in the development life cycle of security-critical cyber-physical systems, and adapt these elements to the newly designed flow paradigm.Finally, we provide prospectives and future directions for improving the usability and security level of this design flow paradigm.

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    5. Link level performance comparison between LTE V2X and DSRC
    Hu Jinling,Chen Shanzhi,Zhao Li,Li Yuanyuan,Fang Jiayi,Li Baozhu,Shi Yan
    通信与信息网络学报    2017, 2 (2): 101-112.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-017-0022-x
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    Applications of VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) have their own requirements and challenges in wireless communication technology.Although regarded as the first standard for VANETs,IEEE 802.11p is still in the field-trial stage.Recently,LTE V2X(Long-Term Evolution Vehicular to X)appeared as a systematic V2X solution based on TD-LTE(Time Division Long-Term Evolution)4G.It is regarded as the most powerful competitor to 802.11p.We conduct link level simulations of LTE V2X and DSRC (Dedicated Short-Range Communication)for several different types of scenarios.Simulation results show that LTE V2X can achieve the same BLER(Block Error Ratio)with a lower SNR(Signal Noise Ratio)than DSRC.A more reliable link can be guaranteed by LTE V2X,which can achieve the same BLER with lower receiving power than DSRC.The coverage area of LTE V2X is larger than that of DSRC.

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    6. Wireless big data:transforming heterogeneous networks to smart networks
    Huang Yudi,Tan Junjie,Liang Ying-Chang
    通信与信息网络学报    2017, 2 (1): 19-32.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-017-0002-1
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    Abstract:In HetNets (Heterogeneous Networks),each network is allocated with fixed spectrum resource and provides service to its assigned users using specific RAT (Radio Access Technology).Due to the high dynamics of load distribution among different networks,simply optimizing the performance of individual network can hardly meet the demands from the dramatically increasing access devices,the consequent upsurge of data traffic,and dynamic user QoE(Quality-of-Experience).The deployment of smart networks,which are supported by SRA (Smart Resource Allocation)among different networks and CUA (Cognitive User Access) among different users,is deemed a promising solution to these challenges.In this paper,we propose a framework to transform HetNets to smart networks by leveraging WBD(Wireless Big Data),CR(Cognitive Radio) and NFV (Network Function Virtualization) techniques.CR and NFV support resource slicing in spectrum,physical layers,and network layers,while WBD is used to design intelligent mechanisms for resource mapping and traffic prediction through powerful AI (Artificial Intelligence) methods.We analyze the characteristics of WBD and review possible AI methods to be utilized in smart networks.In particular,the potential of WBD is revealed through high level view on SRA,which intelligently maps radio and network resources to each network for meeting the dynamic traffic demand,as well as CUA,which allows mobile users to access the best available network with manageable cost,yet achieving target QoS(Quality-of-Service)or QoE.

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    7. Secure searchable encryption: a survey
    Yunling WANG,Jianfeng WANG,Xiaofeng CHEN
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (4): 52-65.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.043
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    Cloud computing facilitates convenient and on-demand network access to a centralized pool of resources.Currently, many users prefer to outsource data to the cloud in order to mitigate the burden of local storage.However, storing sensitive data on remote servers poses privacy challenges and is currently a source of concern.SE (Searchable Encryption) is a positive way to protect users sensitive data, while preserving search ability on the server side.SE allows the server to search encrypted data without leaking information in plaintext data.The two main branches of SE are SSE (Searchable Symmetric Encryption) and PEKS (Public key Encryption with Keyword Search).SSE allows only private key holders to produce ciphertexts and to create trapdoors for search, whereas PEKS enables a number of users who know the public key to produce ciphertexts but allows only the private key holder to create trapdoors.This article surveys the two main techniques of SE: SSE and PEKS.Different SE schemes are categorized and compared in terms of functionality, efficiency, and security.Moreover, we point out some valuable directions for future work on SE schemes.

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    8. Adaptive beaconing for collision avoidance and tracking accuracy in vehicular networks
    Sun Long,Huang Aiping,Shan Hangguan,Cai Lin
    通信与信息网络学报    2017, 2 (2): 30-45.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-017-0019-5
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    In vehicular networks,the exchange of beacons among neighboring vehicles is a promising solution to guarantee a vehicle’s safety.However,frequent beaconing under high vehicle density conditions will cause beacon collisions,which are harmful to a vehicle’s driving safety and the location tracking accuracy.We propose an ABIwRC (Adaptive Beaconing Interval with Resource Coordination) method for a highway scenario.Each vehicle broadcasts beacon interval requests,including the intervals needed for both the vehicle’s driving safety and location tracking accuracy.The RSU(Road Side Unit) allocates resources for a vehicle’s beaconing according to the requests from all vehicles and the interference relationship between the vehicles in adjacent RSUs.We formulate a resource allocation problem for maximizing the sum utility,which measures the satisfaction of vehicles’requests.We then transform the optimization problem into a maximum weighted independent set problem,and propose an algorithm to solve this efficiently.Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the benchmark in terms of beacon reception ratio,vehicle driving safety,and location tracking accuracy.

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    9. Position based key exchange: definitions and implementations
    Junwei ZHANG,Fangqiong DU,Jianfeng MA,Chao YANG
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (4): 33-43.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.045
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    Chandran, et al.introduce the direction of position based cryptography at CRYPTO 2009.In position based cryptography, the position of a party is used to be its unique “credential” in order to realize the cryptographic tasks, such as position based encryption, position based signature, position based key exchange and so on.Position based key exchange, as a basic primitive in position based cryptography, can be used to establish a shared key based on the position of the participant.To begin with, this paper presents the notions of the prover-to-verifier mode and the prover-to-prover mode for position based key exchange.In the prover-to-verifier mode, a secret key can be shared between a prover and the verifiers according to the position of the prover.While in the prover-to-prover mode, two provers located at the valid positions can negotiate a shared key with the help of the verifiers and any other party whose position is illegal cannot obtain the shared key.At the same time, this paper formalizes two security definitions against colluding adversaries: position based prover-to-verifier key exchange and position based prover-to-prover key exchange.Then, this paper introduces the bounded retrieval model and the implementations of position based key exchange in two modes based on the bounded retrieval model.Finally, this paper discusses the position based key exchange protocols in two modes from both security and performance perspectives.

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    10. Software defined Internet of vehicles:architecture, challenges and solutions
    Jiacheng CHEN, Haibo ZHOU, Ning ZHANG, Peng YANG, Lin GUI, Xuemin SHEN
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (1): 14-26.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.002
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    IoV (Internet of Vehicles) is a promising paradigm to the future of automobiles, which will undoubtedly boost the automobile market as well as accelerate innovation in Internet services and applications.The concept of SD-IoV (Software Defined IoV) is presented, which is capable of improving resource utilization, service quality, and network optimization in the harsh vehicular network environments.First, A generalized SD-IoV architecture as an intuitive big picture is presented.Then, the major functions realized by SD-IoV are elabrated on to illustrate how the current challenges are resolved.As the key enablers of SD-IoV, three possible implementation methods of the wireless control path are described and compared.Finally, the challenges and existing solutions of SD-IoV are disuessed and open issues are pointed out so as to shed light on future research.

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    11. Analysis and prediction of 100 km-scale atmospheric duct interference in TD-LTE networks
    Zhou Ting,Sun Tianyu,Hu Honglin,Xu Hui,Yang Yang,Harjula Ilkka,Koucheryavy Yevgeni
    通信与信息网络学报    2017, 2 (1): 66-80.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-017-0006-x
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    Abstract:Atmospheric ducts are horizontal layers that occur under certain weather conditions in the lower atmosphere.Radio signals guided in atmospheric ducts tend to experience less attenuation and spread much farther,i.e,hundreds of kilometers.In a large-scale deployed TD-LTE(Time Division Long Term Evolution) network,atmospheric ducts cause faraway downlink wireless signals to propagate beyond the designed protection distance and interfere with local uplink signals,thus resulting in a large outage probability.In this paper,we analyze the characteristics of ADI atmospheric duct interference (Atmospheric Duct Interference) by the use of real network-side big data from the current operated TD-LTE network owned by China Mobile.The analysis results yield the time varying and directional characteristics of ADI.In addition,we proposed an SVM (Support Vector Machine)-classifier based spacial prediction method of ADI by machine learning over combination of real network-side big data and real meteorological data.Furthermore,an implementation of ADMM (Alternating Direction Methods of Multipliers) framework is proposed to implement a distributed SVM prediction scheme,which reduces data exchange among different regions/cities,maintains similar prediction accuracy and is thus of a more practical use to operators.

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    12. Big data in telecommunication operators:data,platform and practices
    Wang Zhen,Wei Guofu,Zhan Yaling,Sun Yanhuan
    通信与信息网络学报    2017, 2 (3): 78-91.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-017-0010-1
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    In the age of information explosion,big data has brought challenges but also great opportunities that support a wide range of applications for people in all walks of life.Faced with the continuous and intense competition from OTT service providers,traditional telecommunications service providers have been forced to undergo enterprise transformation.Fortunately,these providers have natural and unique advantages in terms of both data sources and data scale,all of which give them a competitive advantage.Multiple foreign mainstream telecom operators have already applied big data for their own growth,from internal business to external applications.Armed with big data,domestic telecom companies are also innovating business models.This paper will introduce three aspects of big data in the telecommunications industry.First,the unique characteristics and advantages of communications industry big data are discussed.Second,the development of the big data platform architecture is introduced in detail,which incorporates five crucial sub-systems.We highlight the data collection and data processing systems.Finally,three internal or external application areas based on big data analysis are discussed,namely basic business,network construction,and intelligent tracing.Our work sheds light on how to deal with big data for telecommunications enterprise development.

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    13. Smart data deduplication for telehealth systems in heterogeneous cloud computing
    Keke GAI,Meikang QIU,Xiaotong SUN,Hui ZHAO
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (4): 93-104.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.051
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    The widespread application of heterogeneous cloud computing has enabled enormous advances in the real-time performance of telehealth systems.A cloud-based telehealth system allows healthcare users to obtain medical data from various data sources supported by heterogeneous cloud providers.Employing data duplications in distributed cloud databases is an alternative approach for achieving data sharing among multiple data users.However, this approach results in additional storage space being used, even though reducing data duplications would lead to a decrease in data acquisitions and realtime performance.To address this issue, this paper focuses on developing a dynamic data deduplication method that uses an intelligent blocker to determine the working mode of data duplications for each data package in heterogeneous cloudbased telehealth systems.The proposed approach is named the SD2M (Smart Data Deduplication Model), in which the main algorithm applies dynamic programming to produce optimal solutions to minimizing the total cost of data usage.We implement experimental evaluations to examine the adaptability of the proposed approach.

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    14. Design and test of HiSGR: a novel GNSS/INS ultra tight coupled receiver
    Xiaoliang WANG,Yanguang WANG,Zhe SU,Yansong MENG,Deren GONG
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (3): 67-76.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.050
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    Abstract: With the support of the national nature science foundation, the Academy of Space Electronic Information Technology is developing a novel compact spaceborne GNSS receiver, referred to as the HiSGR (High Sensitivity GNSS Receiver). This receiver can operate effectively in the full range of Earth orbiting missions, from LEO (Low Earth Orbit) to geostationary and beyond. Improved signal detection algorithms are used in the signal process section of the HiSGR and an inertial sensor is used for GNSS/INS ultra tight coupled design, which makes the acquisition process fast and provides improved tracking performance for weaker GPS signals in the presence of high dynamics. Extensive tests are performed using the HiSGR to demonstrate the good performance of some crucial specifications, by employing a real GNSS signal received in an open field and through hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Receiver performance is demonstrated for LEO and GEO scenarios. A ground vehicle running test is performed for demonstration of fast acquisition and reacquisition capabilities under conditions of signal loss. The HiSGR showed good performance and it was stable during the simulations and tests, which proved its capability for future space applications.

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    15. The path to 5G:mmWave aspects
    Lianming LI,Xiaokang NIU,Yuan CHAI,Linhui CHEN,Tao ZHANG,Depeng CHENG,Haiyang XIA,Jiangzhou WANG,Tiejun CUI,Xiaohu YOU
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (2): 1-18.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.032
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    The wide spectrum and propagation characteristics over the air give mmWave communication unique advantages as well as design challenges for 5G applications.To increase the system speed,capacity,and coverage,there is a need for innovation in the RF system architecture,circuit,antenna,and package in terms of implementation opportunities and constraints.The discuss mmWave spectrum characteristics,circuits,RF system architecture,and their implementation issues are discussed.Moreover,the transmitter key components,i.e.,the receiver,antenna,and packaging are reviewed.

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    16. A survey of routing techniques for satellite networks
    Xiaogang QI,Jiulong MA,Dan WU,Lifang LIU,Shaolin HU
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (4): 66-85.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.058
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    Satellite networks have many advantages over traditional terrestrial networks.However, it is very difficult to design a satellite network with excellent performance.The paper briefly summarizes some existing satellite network routing technologies from the perspective of both single-layer and multilayer satellite constellations, and focuses on the main ideas, characteristics, and existing problems of these routing technologies.For single-layer satellite networks, two routing strategies are discussed, virtual node strategy and virtual topology strategy.Moreover, considering the deficiency of existing multilayer satellite network routing, we discuss the topic invulnerability.Finally, the challenges and problems faced by the satellite network are analyzed and the trend of future development is predicted.

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    17. Technical challenges for high-frequency wireless communication
    Jianping ZHAO,Chenlei LI,Xianghua LI,Long SHEN
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (2): 19-28.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.033
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    Recent rapid developments in 4G wireless communication have been motivated by breakthroughs in air interface technology,exemplified by the replacement of WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) with OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency-division Multiplexing).Although the protocol to adopt for 5G HF (High-Frequency) wireless communication—including such matters as waveform,network deployment,and frequency range—has been a controversial issue for a number of years,a common view is that there is a large gap between the rapidly increasing requirements pertaining to traffic capacity and the capabilities of current LTE (Long Term Evolution) networks in terms of spectral and power efficiency.A number of technical challenges need to be overcome in order to bridge this gap.In this paper,by briefly reviewing progress in HF technology,we summarize technical challenges ranging from propagation attenuation and the implementation of circuit devices,to signal processing and the Ka-band to offer feasible reflection on the forthcoming technological revolution.

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    18. A fully integrated CMOS 60-GHz transceiver for IEEE802.11ad applications
    Lei ZHANG,Jun LUO,Wei ZHU,Li ZHANG,Yan WANG,Zhiping YU
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (2): 45-61.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.022
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    A fully integrated 60-GHz transceiver for 802.11ad applications with superior performance in a 90-nm CMOS process versus prior arts is proposed and real based on a field-circuit co-design methodology.The reported transceiver monolithically integrates a receiver,transmitter,PLL(Phase-Locked Loop) synthesizer,and LO (Local Oscillator) path based on a sliding-IF architecture.The transceiver supports up to a 16QAM modulation scheme and a data rate of 6 Gbit/s per channel,with an EVM (Error Vector Magnitude) of lower than ?20 dB.The receiver path achieves a configurable conversion gain of 36~64 dB and a noise figure of 7.1 dB over 57~64 GHz,while consuming only 177 mW of power.The transmitter achieves a conversion gain of roughly 26 dB,with an output P1dBof 8 dBm and a saturated output power of over 10 dBm,consuming 252 mW of power from a 1.2-V supply.The LO path is composed of a 24-GHz PLL,doubler,and a divider chain,as well as an LO distribution network.In closed-loop operation mode,the PLL exhibits an integrated phase error of 3.3o rms (from 100 kHz to 100 MHz) over prescribed frequency bands,and a total power dissipation of only 26 mW.All measured results are rigorously loyal to the simulation.

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    19. An adaptive channel estimation algorithm for millimeter wave cellular systems
    LUWenlü,Weixia ZOU,Xuefeng LIU
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (2): 37-44.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.015
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    The large bandwidth available with mmWave (millimeter Wave) makes it a promising candidate for 5th generation cellular networks.Proper channel estimation algorithms must be developed to enable beamforming in mmWave systems.In this paper,we propose an adaptive channel estimation algorithm that exploits the poor scattering nature of the mmWave channel and adjusts the training overhead adaptively with the change of channel quality for mmWave cellular systems.First,we use a short training sequence to estimate the channel parameters based on the two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform method.Then,we design a feedback scheme to adjust the length of the training sequence under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the channel estimation.The key threshold in the feedback scheme is derived and its influence on the accuracy of the estimation results is analyzed.Simulation results confirm that the proposed algorithm can adjust the length of the training sequence adaptively according to the current channel condition maintaining a stable estimation accuracy.

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    20. Investigation of cost,power,and spectral efficiency in fixed-and flexi-grid networks
    Iyer Sridhar,Prakash Singh Shree
    通信与信息网络学报    2017, 2 (3): 92-106.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-017-0032-8
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    With the steady growth of traffic volume in core networks,it is predicted that future optical network communication will be constrained mainly by cost and power consumption.Thus,for Internet sustainability,it will be necessary to ensure cost and power efficiency in optical networks.The aims of this study are(i)to identify the main sources of cost and power consumption in fixed-grid(SLR and MLR)and flexi-grid(OFDM)optical networks,and(ii)to compare techniques for improving cost and power efficiency in SLR/MLR-and OFDM-based networks.To this end,we conducted a comparative analysis of cost and power efficiency for the OFDM-and MLR/SLR-based networks,and considering realistic networks,evaluated the cost and power consumed by different components in the optical layer.Our results show that(i)OFDM-based networks outperform those based on MLR/SLR in terms of both cost and power-efficiency,(ii)the extra equipment cost incurred due to under-utilization of spectrum is reduced by switching to a flexi-grid network,(iii)lower power consumption per bit is obtained when the networking solution ensures a finer bit-rate granularity,and(iv)there exists a power and spectrum minimization trade-off that is network characteristic dependent.

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    21. Wireless channel feature extraction via GMM and CNN in the tomographic channel model
    Li Haihan,Li Yunzhou,Zhou Shidong,Wang Jing
    通信与信息网络学报    2017, 2 (1): 41-51.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-017-0004-z
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    Abstract:Wireless channel modeling has always been one of the most fundamental highlights of the wireless communication research.The performance of new advanced models and technologies heavily depends on the accuracy of the wireless CSI (Channel State Information).This study examined the randomness of the wireless channel parameters based on the characteristics of the radio propagation environment.The diversity of the statistical properties of wireless channel parameters inspired us to introduce the concept of the tomographic channel model.With this model,the static part of the CSI can be extracted from the huge amount of existing CSI data of previous measurements,which can be defined as the wireless channel feature.In the proposed scheme for obtaining CSI with the tomographic channel model,the GMM(Gaussian Mixture Model)is applied to acquire the distribution of the wireless channel parameters,and the CNN(Convolutional Neural Network) is applied to automatically distinguish different wireless channels.The wireless channel feature information can be stored o?ine to guide the design of pilot symbols and save pilot resources.The numerical results based on actual measurements demonstrated the clear diversity of the statistical properties of wireless channel parameters and that the proposed scheme can extract the wireless channel feature automatically with fewer pilot resources.Thus,computing and storage resources can be exchanged for the finite and precious spectrum resource.

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    22. A survey of privacy protection techniques for mobile devices
    Lei ZHANG,Donglai ZHU,Zhemin YANG,Limin SUN,Min YANG
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (4): 86-92.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.052
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    Modern mobile devices provide a wide variety of services.Users are able to access these services for many sensitive tasks relating to their everyday lives (e.g., finance, home, or contacts).However, these services also provide new attack surfaces to attackers.Many efforts have been devoted to protecting mobile users from privacy leakage.In this work, we study state-ofthe-art techniques for the detection and protection of privacy leakage and discuss the evolving trends of privacy research.

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    23. A low-cost 10-Gbit/s millimeter-wave wireless link working at E-band
    Linpu HUANG,Zhigang ZHOU,Jian ZHANG
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (2): 109-114.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.035
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    Test results for a 10-Gbps prototype demonstrator working at 71~76 GHz frequency band with a 2-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency are reported.To overcome the speed limitation of the commercial DA/ADs,a two-channel analog IF multiplexing and demultiplexing topology is adopted as a trade-off between cost and spectrum efficiency.The same approach is also used to achieve up to 20 Gbps with a full 10-GHz bandwidth of the allocated commercial bands (71~76 GHz and 81~86 GHz).

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    24. Cloud-based video communication and networking: an architectural overview
    Zhisheng YAN,Changwen CHEN
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (1): 27-43.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.010
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    Cloud-based video communication and networking has emerged as a promising new research paradigm to significantly improve the quality of experience for video consumers.An architectural overview of this promising research area was presented.This overview with an end-to-end partition of the cloud-based video system into major blocks with respect to their locations from the center of the cloud to the edge of the cloud was started.Following this partition, existing research efforts on how the principles of cloud computing can provide unprecedented support to 1) video servers, 2) content delivery networks, and 3) edge networks within the global cloud video ecosystems were examined.Moreover, a case study was exemplfied on an edge cloud assisted HTTP adaptive video streaming to demonstrate the effectiveness of cloud computing support.Finally, by envisioning a list of future research topics in cloud-based video communication and networking a coclusion is made.

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    25. mmWave mobile communication under hypercellular architecture
    Jiahui LI,Fei HUANG,Runyun ZHOU,Wenhua CHEN,Zhigang TIAN,Shidong ZHOU
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (2): 62-76.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.023
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    To meet the ever growing traffic in mobile communication,mmWave (millimeter-Wave) frequency bands have gained considerable attention for having a greater amount of bandwidth available than the current cellular spectrum below 3 GHz.Several test systems have been reported on recently to validate the possibility of mmWave links in mobile scenarios.However,there still exist practical issues to enable the application of mmWave in mobile communication,including reliability and cost.In this article,we present some new designs that address these issues,where system architecture,transceiver architecture,and related issues such as circuits and antenna arrays are considered.Hypercellular architecture is applied in mmWave mobile networks to overcome blockage problems,and a Butler-matrix-based HBF (Hybrid Beamforming) architecture is considered in an mmWave link.Simulations and experimental results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the Butler-matrix-based system.

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    26. Critical Analysis of DDoS—An Emerging Security Threat over IoT Networks
    Lohachab Ankur,Karambir Bidhan
    通信与信息网络学报    2018, 3 (3): 57-78.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-018-0022-5
    摘要134)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (2525KB)(256)    收藏

    Ubiquitous computing facilitated by Internet of things (IoT) devices has made modern day life easier across many areas.It offers capabilities to measure parameters associated with the devices,to infer from their results,and to understand and control millions of such devices in various application domains.The enormous potential of IoT systems enables each and every device to communicate with each other,thereby providing more productivity.In this scenario,heterogeneity of technologies in use is expected to intensify the security threats.Policy enforcement for the assurance of privacy and security plays a key role in these systems.Fulfillment of privacy and security related requirements include confidentiality of data,user and device authentication,access control,and trust assurance among the things.However,recent reported events related to security attacks show colossal vulnerabilities among IoT devices capable of bringing security risks to the whole environment.One of the common uses of these devices by the attackers is to generate powerful distributed denial of service(DDoS)attacks.It is one of the most prominent attacking behaviors over a network by a group of geographically distributed zombie computers that interrupt and block legitimate users to use the network resources and hence,requires great attention.In this regard,the current work being novel in the field puts concentration on variants of DDoS attacks and their impact on IoT networks along with some of the existing countermeasures to defend against these attacks.The paper also discusses the detailed working mechanism of these attacks and highlights some of the commonly used tools that are deployed in such attack scenarios.

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    27. A Review of Wideband Wide-Angle Scanning 2-D Phased Array and Its Applications in Satellite Communication
    Li Yan,Xiao Shaoqiu,Guo Jiajia
    通信与信息网络学报    2018, 3 (1): 21-30.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-018-0001-x
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    In this review,research progress on the wideband wide-angle scanning two-dimensional phased arrays is summarized.The importance of the wideband and the wide-angle scanning characteristics for satellite communication is discussed.Issues like grating lobe avoidance,active reflection coefficient suppression and gain fluctuation reduction are emphasized in this review.Besides,techniques to address these issues and methods to realize the wideband wide-angle scanning phased array are reviewed.

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    28. Securing acoustics-based short-range communication systems: an overview
    Si CHEN,Zhan QIN,Guoliang XING,Kui REN
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (4): 44-51.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.055
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    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets have continued to grow in recent years.Nowadays, people rely on these ubiquitous smart devices and carry them everywhere in their daily lives.Acoustic signal, as a simple and prevalent transmitting vector for end-to-end communication, shows unique characteristics comparing with another popular communication method, i.e., optical signal, especially on the applications performed over smart devices.Acoustic signal does not require lineof-sight when transmission, the computational power of most smart devices are sufficient to modulate/demodulate acoustic signal using software acoustic modem only, which can be easily deployed on current off-the-shelf smart devices.Therefore, many acoustics-based short range communication systems have been developed and are used in sensitive applications such as building access control and mobile payment system.However, past work shows that an acoustic eavesdropper snooping on the communication between a transmitter and its legitimate receiver can easily break their communication protocol and decode the transmitted information.To solve this problem, many solutions have been proposed to protect the acoustic signal against eavesdroppers.In this overview, we explore the designs of existing solutions, the corresponding implementations, and their methodologies to protect acoustic signal communication.For each dependable and secure acoustics-based short range communication system, we present the major technical hurdles to be overcome, the state-of-the-art, and also offer a vision of the future research issues on this promising technology.

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    29. Power optimization for multiple QoS,delay,and BER classes relying on finite-delay information theory
    Gong Chen,Gao Qian,Hanzo Lajos,Xu Zhengyuan
    通信与信息网络学报    2017, 2 (1): 33-40.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-017-0003-0
    摘要254)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (657KB)(222)    收藏

    Abstract:Future communication systems will include different types of messages requiring different transmission rates,packet lengths,and service qualities.We address the power-optimization issues of communication systems conveying multiple message types based on finite-delay information theory.Given both the normalized transmission rate and the packet length of a system,the actual residual decoding error rate is a function of the transmission power.We propose a generalized power allocation framework for multiple message types.Two different optimization cost functions are adopted:the number of service-quality violations encountered and the sum log ratio of the residual decoding error rate.We provide the optimal analytical solution for the former cost function and a heuristic solution based on a genetic algorithm for the latter one.Finally,the performance of the proposed solutions are evaluated numerically.

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    30. Analysis of SVEIR worm attack model with saturated incidence and partial immunization
    Fangwei WANG,Wenyan HUANG,Yulong SHEN,Changguang WANG
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (4): 105-115.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.042
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    Internet worms can propagate across networks at terrifying speeds, reduce network security to a remarkable extent, and cause heavy economic losses.Thus, the rapid elimination of Internet worms using partial immunization becomes a significant matter for sustaining Internet infrastructure.This paper addresses this issue by presenting a novel worm susceptiblevaccinated-exposed-infectious-recovered model, named the SVEIR model.The SVEIR model extends the classical susceptibleexposed-infectious-recovered model (refer to SEIR model) through incorporating a saturated incidence rate and a partial immunization rate.The basic reproduction number in the SVEIR model is obtained.By virtue of the basic reproduction number, we prove the global stabilities of an infection-free equilibrium point and a unique endemic equilibrium point.Numerical methods are used to verify the proposed SVEIR model.Simulation results show that partial immunization is highly effective for eliminating worms, and the SVEIR model is viable for controlling and forecasting Internet worms.

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    31. QoS-aware interference management for vehicular D2D relay networks
    Yang Tinghan,Cheng Xiang,Shen Xia,Chen Shanzhi,Yang Liuqing
    通信与信息网络学报    2017, 2 (2): 75-90.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-017-0026-6
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    Vehicular network communication technology is currently attracting a considerable amount of attention.We consider a scenario in which vehicular communication nodes share the same spectrum resources and generate interference with other nodes.Compared with traditional interference-avoiding vehicular communications,this paper aims to increase the number of accessed communication links under the premise of satisfying the required QoS.In our research,communication nodes have opportunities to select relay nodes to both help improve their data transmissions and reduce their transmit power in order to decrease interference with other links while still satisfying their QoS requirements.Based on these objectives,we propose an innovative interference management method that considers link selection,power adaption,and communication mode selection simultaneously to maximize the number of communication links with the lowest power cost.Compared with traditional link-selection and power-adaption interference management schemes,the proposed scheme improves QoS satisfaction with high energy efficiency.Simulation results demonstrate both the efficiency and the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

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    32. Survey on key security technologies for space information networks
    Jianwei LIU,Weiran LIU,Qianhong WU,Dawei LI,Shigang CHEN
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (1): 72-85.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.006
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    SIN (Space Information Network) is expected to play an increasing role in providing real-time, flexible, and integrated communication and data transmission services in an efficient manner.Nowadays, SIN has been widely developed for position navigation, environment monitor, traffic management, counter-terrorism, etc.However, security is a major concern in SIN, since the satellites, spacecrafts, and aircrafts are susceptible to a variety of traditional/specific network-based attacks, including eavesdropping, session hijacking, and illegal accessing.The network architecture and security issues of SIN were reviewed.Various security requirements were discussed that should be considered when designing SIN.And existing solutions proposed to meet these requirements were surveyed.The key challenges and key technologies that still require extensive research and development for securing SIN were indentifed.

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    33. Embracing social big data in wireless system design
    Wen Yonggang,Hu Han,Liu Fang
    通信与信息网络学报    2017, 2 (1): 81-96.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-017-0007-9
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    Abstract:The past decade has witnessed explosive growth in wireless big data,as well as in various big data analytics technologies.The intelligence mined from these massive datasets can be utilized to optimize wireless system design.Due to the open data policy of the mainstream OSN(Online Social Network)service providers and the pervasiveness of online social services,this paper studies how social big data can be embraced in wireless communication system design.We start with our first hand experience on crawling social big data and the principal of social-aware system design.Then we present five studies on utilizing social intelligence for system optimization,including community-aware social video distribution over cloud content delivery networks,public cloud assisted mobile social video sharing,data driven bitrate adjustment and spectrum allocation for mobile social video sharing,location-aware video streaming,and social video distribution over information-centric networking.

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    34. State of Art:Vertical Handover Decision Schemes in Next-Generation Wireless Network
    E.M.Malathy,Muthuswamy Vijayalakshmi
    通信与信息网络学报    2018, 3 (1): 43-52.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-018-0009-2
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    The state of art pertaining to vertical handover decisions in next-generation wireless networks provides a detailed overview of vertical handover studies.This paper classifies the research initiatives under the vertical handover decision mechanism for heterogeneous wireless networks.A fair comparison of traditional and recent techniques is drafted to obtain direction of the vertical handover decision.Several issues related to seamless support on mobility management techniques have been described in the literature.The next-generation wireless network promises to offer enhanced data services compared to other networks in mobile communication.Since all next generation network (NGN) is an IP-based network,challenges drive toward providing quality of service in the handover process.The necessity of handover process is a seamless connection.The handover operations that minimize or even target the elimination of delay in new network connection establishment are most welcomed.However,frequent disconnection and inefficient seamless handovers result in handover operation failures.Most of the existing methods on handover decisions are based on mobile-controlled handovers.Here,the decisions are in-corporate in the mobile devices.Several mobile-controlled handovers take a single parameter or two or more additional parameters as a combination to evaluate the policy decision.These approaches are carefully studied and classified.

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    35. A Broadband ±45°Dual-Polarized Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Antenna for 5G Base Stations with Extra Decoupling Elements
    Wu Qi,Liang Peiyu,Chen Xiaoming
    通信与信息网络学报    2018, 3 (1): 31-37.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-018-0002-9
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    A dual-polarized multiple-input multipleoutput(MIMO)antenna is proposed for 5G base stations.Each antenna element consists of two orthogonally placed fan-shaped dipole elements and ±45°dual-polarized feeding structures are used to achieve broadband operation.The resonant frequency of the array element is from 3.3 to 4.2 GHz,which covers the mainstream spectrum allocations of 5G mobile networks.H-shaped coupling elements are used to improve the isolation between the neighboring antenna elements and the mutual coupling is reduced by over 4 dB.The envelope correlation of a 2 × 2 array is provided for verification.

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    36. Millimeter wave receive beamforming with one-bit quantization
    Junlin TANG,Zhiqiang WANG,Zhihang ZHANG,Yuan ZENG,Guangrong YUE
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (2): 84-92.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.027
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    Nowadays,the increase amounts of mobile data has resulted in great demand on existing communication networks.The millimeter-wave band offers large bandwidths to be exploited,which eases the spectrum crunch for bands below 3 GHz.In order to mitigate the path loss from high frequencies,a large antenna array and beamforming technology are adopted to increase the link gain.However,a challenge arises from the new band.Given the order of gigahertz bandwidth and the high sampling rate,the high-resolution ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter) used in the large array creates a power consumption bottleneck.One solution is to use a low-resolution ADC to replace the full-precision ADC.In this paper,we propose a mixed LMS (Least Mean Square) receiver beamforming method for a millimeter-wave one-bit antenna array.We first use a grid-based approach to roughly estimate the DOA (Direction of Arrival) of the incoming signal.Then,we use the steering vector for the DOA as an initial value for the LMS method.A simulation shows that our proposed mixed LMS receiver beamforming method for the onebit antenna array attains a performance level near the optimal one that obtained with an accurate DOA.The radiation pattern of the mixed LMS method almost overlaps the pattern for the accurate DOA,and the spectral efficiency of the mixed LMS method reach up with that obtained from accurate DOA.Furthermore,owing to the use of initial values from rough DOA estimation,the mixed LMS method has a fast convergence.

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    37. Multiple Fan-Beam Antenna Array for Massive MIMO Applications
    Liu Peiqin,Li Yue,Zhang Zhijun
    通信与信息网络学报    2018, 3 (1): 38-42.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-018-0003-8
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    In this paper,a multiple fan-beam antenna array is proposed for massive multiple-input multipleoutput(MIMO)applications.The proposed array is based on vertical spatial filtering to reduce radio frequency complexity in a massive MIMO system.A microstrip line feeding network is utilized to achieve a specific phase distribution for multiple fan beams.A 64-element antenna array is designed and fabricated to validate the design strategy.The proposed antenna array uses 16 ports to excite 64 antenna elements,which is more cost effective than traditional massive MIMO systems.The measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna array can achieve two fan beams at 7 in the vertical dimension,and the measured gain of every port exceeds 10 dBi at 2.6 GHz.

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    38. Data-driven resource allocation with traffic load prediction
    Yao Chuting,Yang Chenyang,Chih-Lin I
    通信与信息网络学报    2017, 2 (1): 52-65.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-017-0005-y
    摘要217)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (495KB)(200)    收藏

    Abstract:Wireless big data is attracting extensive attention from operators,vendors and academia,which provides new freedoms in improving the performance from various levels of wireless networks.One possible way to leverage big data analysis is predictive resource allocation,which has been reported to increase spectrum and energy resource utilization efficiency with the predicted user behavior including user mobility.However,few works address how the traffic load prediction can be exploited to optimize the data-driven radio access.We show how to translate the predicted traffic load into the essential information used for resource optimization by taking energy-saving transmission for non-real-time user as an example.By formulating and solving an energy minimizing resource allocation problem with future instantaneous bandwidth information,we not only provide a performance upper bound,but also reveal that only two key parameters are related to the future information.By exploiting the residual bandwidth probability derived from the traffic volume prediction,the two parameters can be estimated accurately when the transmission delay allowed by the user is large,and the closed-form solution of global optimal resource allocation can be obtained when the delay approaches infinity.We provide a heuristic resource allocation policy to guarantee a target transmission completion probability when the delay is no-so-large.Simulation results validate our analysis,show remarkable energy-saving gain of the proposed predictive policy over non-predictive policies,and illustrate that the time granularity in predicting traffic load should be identical to the delay allowed by the user.

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    39. Time-Modulated Arrays:A Four-Dimensional Antenna Array Controlled by Switches
    He Chong,Wang Lele,Chen Jingfeng,Jin Ronghong
    通信与信息网络学报    2018, 3 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.1007/s41650-018-0004-7
    摘要195)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (4388KB)(199)    收藏

    With the rapid development of modern electronic technologies,antenna arrays typically operate in very complex electromagnetic environments.However,owing to the various errors such as systematic errors and random errors,conventional antenna arrays have relatively high sidelobes.Time modulated arrays (TMAs),also known as four-dimensional (4-D) antenna arrays,introduce time as an additional dimension for generating ultra-low sidelobes at fundamental component and realizing real-time beam scanning by harmonic components.Recently,the harmonic components can also be developed for various new applications including wireless communications and radar systems.In this review,we introduce comprehensively the fundamental methodologies and recent applications of TMAs.This aims to stimulate continuing efforts for the understanding of TMAs and explore their applications in various aspects.The methods mentioned in this review include three aspects:sideband radiation suppression,power efficiency of TMAs,and applications of harmonic components.These methods either improve the existing TMAs or promote the practical applications of TMAs.First,to suppress the sideband radiation,a method using non-uniform periodical modulation is introduced.The proposed method has an advantage of low computation and can be easily used for synthesizing a real-time radiation pattern according to the environmental need.Next,a TMA structure using reconfigurable power dividers/combiner is introduced to improve the power efficiency of feeding network.Finally,three applications of harmonic component including direction finding,calibration method,and space division multiple access are separately introduced to illustrate the development potential of TMAs.

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    40. Game strategies for distributed denial of service defense in the Cloud of Things
    Yichuan WANG,Yefei ZHANG,Xinhong HEI,Wenjiang JI,Weigang MA
    通信与信息网络学报    2016, 1 (4): 143-155.   DOI: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-1081.2016.040
    摘要215)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (1629KB)(199)    收藏

    Abstract: Integration of the IoT (Internet of Things) with Cloud Computing, termed as the CoT (Cloud of Things) can help achieve the goals of the envisioned IoT and future Internet.In a typical CoT infrastructure, the data collected from wireless sensor networks and IoTs is transmitted through a SG (Smart Gateway) to the cloud.The bandwidth between an IoT access point and SG becomes a bottleneck for information transmission between the IoT and the cloud.We propose a novel game theory model to describe the CoT attacker, who expects to use minimum set and energy consumption of IoT attack devices to occupy as many bandwidth resources as possible in a given time period; and the defender, who expects to minimize false alarms.By analyzing this model, we have found that the game theory model is a non-cooperative and repeated incomplete information game, and Nash equilibrium is existent, perfected by the subgame.The best strategy for each stage of the attack is to adjust the attack link number dynamically based on the comparison results of value and turning point for each time period.At the same time,the defender adjusts the threshold value β dynamically,based on the comparison results of the Load value and expected value of α for each time period.The simulation result shows that our strategy can significantly mitigate the harm of a distributed denial of service attack.

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