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20 June 2022, Volume 3 Issue 2
Special Issue: Satellite Internet Space Payload
Beamforming Algorithm of LEO Satellite Communication System
Haiwang WANG, Chenguang HUANG, Cheng ZOU, Fengwei SHAO, Jiachao CHANG, Guotong LI
2022, 3(2):  3-11.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2022015
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The rapid development of broadband satellite internet has brought satellite communication into a new era.The establishment of large-scale low-orbit satellite constellations has gradually saturated spectrum resources, and the high overlap in frequency use has led to serious interference problems between satellite communication systems.Satellite payloads typically communicate using phased-array antennas, which reduce interference by beamforming at the receiving and transmitting ends.The adaptive beamforming algorithm was used at the receiving end to suppressed interference by adaptive zeroing; The low sidelobe beamforming algorithm was used at the transmitting end, which reduced the interference by imposing specifi c constraints on the sidelobes to suppressed the sidelobe level.Three anti-jamming beamforming algorithms were introduced for the ground receiving end and the satellite sending end respectively, which provided a beamlevel method for reduced the interference between satellite communication systems.

Research on Spaceborne Multi-Beam Phased Array Fed Refl ector Antenna
Tao YANG, Lei LI, Yongqing ZOU
2022, 3(2):  12-19.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2022016
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Spaceborne multi-beam antenna is one of the main means to meet the needs of high-capacity and high-speed satellite communication services, and is widely used in various satellite communication systems.Various forms of antennas, such as spaceborne phased array multi-beam antenna, lens multi-beam antenna, conventional refl ector multi-beam antenna and phased array fed reflector multi-beam antenna were introduced.Here, a novel phased array fed reflector multi-beam antenna was demonstrated, the corresponding design method was given, and the prototype was developed and verifi ed.The proposed antenna has the characteristics of transmitting and receiving common aperture, small array size, low cost, scalable beam quantity, fast agility, high dynamic deployment effi ciency as well as good platform adaptability.Compared with the two-dimensional phased array antenna system, the antenna could achieved more beams.Compared with the multi-beam refl ector antenna, it could also realized the agility scanning of all beams and the centralized call ability of 93%~97%.

The Review of Beamforming Technology Based on Optical True Time Delay Line
Shiyi XIA, Guotong LI
2022, 3(2):  20-27.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2022017
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The important role satellite communications plays in next-generation communication protocols brings both opportunities and challenges.Beamforming is an essential technology for effi cient and fl exible utilization of onboard resources.To explored a better beamforming technology, the optical control beamforming composed of the optical real-time delay line and the traditional analog beam were compared in principle.The phased array beamforming technology based on optical true time delay line meets the expectations of small size, lightweight, and low power in satellite communication.Phased arrays based on optical true delay lines could easily achieved no squint during beam scanning.The technical advantages and constraints of beamforming of optical real-time delay lines under diff erent technical paths were analyzed.For example, based on micro-ring resonator arrays, based on grating delay lines, based on multi-path switching and optical switches, and based on wavelength-selective optical true time delay lines.Finally, the research status of the existing optical beamforming technology was summarized.The possibility of realization in satellite interconnection was proposed, and its future development direction was predicted.

On-Demand Beam Scheduling Technology of Low-Orbit High-Throughput Satellite
Shuai HAN, Yihang WU, Jixi LI, Zuting CHEN, Siyue SUN, Guang LIANG
2022, 3(2):  28-38.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2022018
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Low-orbit high-throughput satellite internet can satisfy the increasing speed and connection density requirements of end users and provide users with all-weather low-latency ultra-broadband communication services.At the same time, how to adapt to the fl exible and unevenly distributed terrestrial service requirements in low-orbit downlink scenarios and improve system throughput is an urgent problem to be solved.Based on the modeling of the beamforming architecture of the low-orbit highthroughput satellite downlink system and the satellite-to-earth fading of the low-orbit satellite and the inter-beam interference of the high-throughput satellite, the low-orbit high-throughput satellite downlink channel model was established.Based on the research of the high-throughput satellite on-demand beam scheduling scheme, the beam scheduling optimization problem model was established to ensured the utilization of resources, and the on-demand beam scheduling technology for high-throughput satellite internet was proposed, the method of using a small amount of beams to cover multiple cells by using on-demand time division multiplexing improved the utilization rate of resources, effectively suppressed the interference between beams, and improved the throughput of the system.

Development Status and Trend of Space Optical Communication Technology
Shaowen LU, Xia HOU, Guotong LI, Jianfeng SUN, Hanghua YU, Weibiao CHEN
2022, 3(2):  39-46.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2022019
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Based on the laser inter-satellite communication link to realize information transmission between diff erent satellite nodes in satellite constellation, it can solve the problems of slow data rate and limited frequency resources in traditional satellite communication technology.Firstly, the main components of space laser communication technology and the research status at home and abroad were introduced.Then, the technical difficulties and main solutions of high-performance tracking, fast acquisition and high-throughput communication of the terminal were described respectively.Finally, the development trend of space laser communication miniaturization, lightweight and low power consumption technology were described, and the new technology was discussed, which provided relevant reference for the development of space laser communication technology.

Spaceborne Optical Switching Technology for Satellite Internet
Jiacheng MENG, Ningbo XIE, Zhaofeng BAI, Jiaxuan ZHU, Junxia WU, Duorui GAO, Wei WANG, Xiaoping XIE
2022, 3(2):  47-55.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2022020
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With the increasing demands for ultra-high speed and large-capacity information transmission such as satellite remote sensing, big data super computing center, video battlefield and 6G mobile communication.The satellite laser communication technology using laser instead of traditional microwave as information carrier has become development trend.It is an eff ective mean to solve the bottleneck of microwave communication bandwidth and reduce the shortage of spectrum resources.In the future, we need to build a satellite internet with global coverage, which are needed to provide the capabilities that terrestrial optical fi ber networks do not have (large coverage, low-delay, services in sparsely populated areas, no geographical obstacles, etc.).The spaceborne optical switching technology is the key and core for the ultra-high speed and large capacity information processing on satellite nodes.Firstly, the development context of satellite internet based on laser communication was introduced, the importance of spaceborne optical switching technology for satellite internet was analyzed.It focused on the detailed classifi cation and comparison, system and information processing mode of space-borne optical switching technology, and showed the potential technical scheme in the future.Then, the characteristics and application schemes of optical switching core devices were analyzed and studied to provided reference for the next generation of satellite internet technology research.

Node Importance Measurement Method in Heterogeneous Information Satellite Network
Jingling Li, Jun Li, Wei Liang, Tao Cui, Yi Zhang
2022, 3(2):  56-62.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2022021
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In satellite network, different nodes have different effects on network connectivity and throughput.In order to avoid network communication disturbances caused by the failure of key nodes in the satellite network, network planning can be carried out in advance by measuring the importance of satellite network nodes.According to the characteristics of satellite network information heterogeneity, satellite virtual nodes and virtual sub-layers were defined, and the satellite multi-layer heterogeneous information correlation network model was proposed.The normalized degree, normalized node betweenness and virtual node correlation factor of virtual nodes were defi ned, and the network node importance calculation function was proposed through the defined parameters, which could accurately measured the node importance in the satellite multi-layer heterogeneous information network.Based on typical examples, the network connectivity and throughput indicators were analyzed.The results showed that the proposed algorithm was better than the classical graph theory algorithm, which could comprehensively considered the impact of data information on the importance of network nodes, and more accurately described the connectivity index of satellite multi-layer heterogeneous information networks.

Remote Satellites Computing transmission and Key Technologies
lang HuYan, Ying Li, Quan Zhou, Jiayuan Wei, Juanni Liu, Yi Zhang
2022, 3(2):  63-71.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2022022
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The diversity of remote sensing data and the increase of acquisition ability make the amount of data generated on the satellite increase geometrically.This situation puts tremendous pressure on the remote satellite data transmission system.This makes the remote satellite data transmission system unable to meet the needs of real-time transmission and becomes the bottleneck of remote sensing data application.The research on massive remote satellite data transmission systems and technology is one of the frontier fi elds of international satellite information network science and technology.Focused on the critical problems of remote satellite real-time data transmission bottleneck, remote sensing data transmission timeliness, remote sensing load utilization, and onboard storage, combined with the traditional satellite data transmission system with onboard intelligent processing, a new remote satellite computing transmission framework was proposed, and its key technologies were analyzed.

Intelligent Identifi cation and Classifi cation Algorithm and Simulation of Satellite Internet Business
Tao CUI, Zhiyuan REN, Jun LI, Qinggui TAN, Jingling LI, Wei LIANG
2022, 3(2):  72-80.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2022023
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With the continuous growth of task requirements and the increasing types of access services, new challenges are raised to the multi-service collaborative transmission capability and the global scheduling capability of network resources of satellite Internet.It is necessary to diff erentiate the services carried by it to optimize resource allocation to meet the service quality assurance requirements of satellite internet multi-service.A business intelligence identifi cation and classifi cation algorithm for satellite dynamic network was proposed.By analyzed the connectivity between satellites, a spatio-temporal steady state diagram was established, the dynamic satellite network topology was determined, and a satellite simulation network was constructed.Sampling to form a training data set, a business intelligence recognition method based on grayscale image was proposed, and the captured data packet was converted into a grayscale image as the input of the algorithm for training and identifi cation under the satellite dynamic scene.The results showed that with the increase of the number of iterations, the recognition accuracy increases, and the recognition accuracy was 97% or more, which verifi ed the eff ectiveness of the proposed algorithm and provided technical support for the development of satellite internet space payloads.

Discussion on the Development of Space-Based Information Systems of America
Zhongyu MIAO, Xiaogeng HOU, Hanyu ZHENG, Yuanyuan HAO
2022, 3(2):  81-88.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2022024
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Space-based information system has the absolute high-level advantage of the battlefi eld, is not limited by regional boundaries and does not rely on air and sea domination.It has the strategic advantage of comprehensively providing battlefi eld information support, breaking geographical restrictions and realizing the wide area interconnection of various services and weapons.It has become an indispensable element of the future battlefi eld.In view of the capability requirements of future global operations for space-based information networks, the forefront of America was focused on.The research progress of space-based information system construction and reported the research progress of typical systems such as the next generation of overhead persistent infrared program (Next-Gen OPIR), the space link-16 program, the Blackjack program, and the commercial augmented space inter-networked operations (CASINO) program were analyzed.The prospective development tendency of space-based information systems of America was summarized, after which some suggestions were put forward for the construction of spacebased information system of our country.

Study
Fault Detection Method of Low-Orbit Satellite Internet Based on Deep Uncertainty Estimation Network
Wenyu SUN, Weijia ZHANG, Limin WANG
2022, 3(2):  89-97.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2022025
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Low-orbit satellite internet technology is a highly innovative direction of development with few existing cases.Low-orbit satellite internet systems are characterised by a large number of constituent satellites, frequent topology changes, and complex payload types.The fault categories of such complex systems are diffi cult to be completely mastered with methods such as expert systems or practical engineering experience.Moreover, traditional fault detection and diagnosis methods tailored for a single satellite and a single functionality are diffi cult to predict uncertain faults under sophisticated and transient environment conditions.For the above problems, a fault prediction model based on the deep uncertainty estimation network for low-orbit satellite internet was proposed, and was verifi ed used self-collected data from simulated joint satellite-ground tests.Experimental results showed that the proposed method could improved the detection accuracy of known types of faults and demonstrated particular eff ectiveness in predicting faults of unknown types.

2022 Vol.3 No.2 No.1
2021 Vol.2 No.4 No.3 No.2 No.1
2020 Vol.1 No.2 No.1
Survey on the Development of Space-Integrated-Ground Information Network
Wei WU
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (1): 1-16 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200101
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Development of Electrically Controlled Liquid Crystal Phased Array Antenna
Wei XIU, Guang YANG, Haiyan TIAN, Chen PANG, Yongzhen LI, Xuesong WANG
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (2): 109-115 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200215
Abstract368)   HTML39)    PDF (1746KB)(821)    Knowledge map   
Analysis of the Starlink Satellite Network Filing Application
Wenhan YANG, Guoliang HUA, Yan FENG, Yuanfu LI, Ranran HOU
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2021 Vol. 2 (1): 60-68 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2021008
Abstract906)   HTML161)    PDF (1185KB)(640)    Knowledge map   
Development and Prospect of Satellite 5G Technology
Lijun ZHAI, Shuming PAN, Chunting WANG
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2021 Vol. 2 (1): 1-10 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2021001
Abstract502)   HTML83)    PDF (939KB)(490)    Knowledge map   
Network Architecture and Key Technologies for the Integrated Satellite and Terrestrial Mobile Communication System
Hui XU, Deshan MIAO, Shaoli KANG, Shaohui SUN
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (2): 2-10 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200201
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Network Operation,Maintenance and Resource Management in Mega Constellation System
Di ZHOU,Min SHENG,Qi HAO,Jiandong LI,Jianping LIU
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (1): 26-35 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200103
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Research on Application Operation Development of Space-Integrated-Ground Information Network
Qiang MEI, Nan SHI, Yanxiao LI, Xionghong PENG, Chang JIANG
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (2): 95-102 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200213
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Analysis on Low-Earth-Orbit Constellation Networking and Adaptability of Ground IP Routing Technology
Ci HE,Yasheng ZHANG,Chenhua SUN,Xudong LI
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (1): 36-41 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200104
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Research on Satellite Internet Security Protection Based on Zero Trust
Yufei SONG, Wenhui ZHOU, Jiandong LIU, Xinpeng LI
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2021 Vol. 2 (3): 15-23 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2021027
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SDN-Based Satellite Networks:Progress, Opportunities and Challenges
Dan YANG, Jiang LIU, Ran ZHANG, Fangqi LIU, Man OUYANG, Tao HUANG, Yunjie LIU
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (2): 34-41 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200205
Abstract385)   HTML76)    PDF (770KB)(259)    Knowledge map   
Research on Space-Ground Network Security Guarantee Technology
Fenghua LI, Linjie ZHANG, Yueming LU, Kui GENG, Yunchuan GUO
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (1): 17-25 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200102
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Research on Simulation Technology in High and Low Orbit Hybrid Satellite Network
Zhihao WANG,Xiaoguang LANG,Shuangai XIAO
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (1): 42-47 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200105
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On-Board Switching for Space-Integrated-Ground Information Network: Progress and Trends
Hao WU, Shuai WANG, Xiance DENG, Peilong LIU, Kai LIU, Jian YAN
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2021 Vol. 2 (2): 2-10 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2021014
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Review of Intelligent Routing Technology in Integrated Satellite-Ground Network
Suzhi CAO, Xue SUN, Houpeng WANG, Jiarong HAN, Siyan PAN, Lei YAN
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2021 Vol. 2 (2): 11-19 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2021015
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Research on Network Architecture for the Space-Integrated-Ground Information Network in 6G
Hui XU, Shaohui SUN
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2021 Vol. 2 (4): 2-9 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2021037
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Design of Multimodal Transport Information Service System Based on Space-Based Internet of Things
Yangyang LU, Guangyue XUE, Hanchang SUN, Qingxia XIE
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (2): 116-120 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200216
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Spatial Network Resource Scheduling Based on Joint MPTCP with SDN for SDN/NFV Architecture
Min JIA,Jia GUO,Meilin XU,Qing GUO,Xuemai GU
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (1): 71-77 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200110
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Space-Terrestrial Integrated Multi-Identifier Network with Endogenous Security
Guohua WEI, Hui LI, Yongjie BAI, Gengxin LI, Kaixuan XING
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (2): 66-72 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200209
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Research on the Architecture of Phased Array Antenna of LEO Communication Satellites Based on Hybrid Beamforming
Rong HU, Xiumei LI, Juan DENG, Jun ZHOU, Shujing DONG, Ling LIU, Wenying MA
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2021 Vol. 2 (2): 90-97 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2021025
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Research Status of Space-air-ground Integrated Network and Application Prospects of New Technologies
Xiaokai ZHANG, Daoxing GUO, Bangning ZHANG
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2021 Vol. 2 (4): 19-26 doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2021039
Abstract270)   HTML52)    PDF (963KB)(192)    Knowledge map   
Survey on the Development of Space-Integrated-Ground Information Network
Wei WU
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (1): 1-16
doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200101
Abstract( 1115 )   HTML PDF (1232KB) (1042 Knowledge map   
Analysis of the Starlink Satellite Network Filing Application
Wenhan YANG, Guoliang HUA, Yan FENG, Yuanfu LI, Ranran HOU
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2021 Vol. 2 (1): 60-68
doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2021008
Abstract( 906 )   HTML PDF (1185KB) (640 Knowledge map   
Development and Prospect of Satellite 5G Technology
Lijun ZHAI, Shuming PAN, Chunting WANG
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2021 Vol. 2 (1): 1-10
doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.2021001
Abstract( 502 )   HTML PDF (939KB) (490 Knowledge map   
SDN-Based Satellite Networks:Progress, Opportunities and Challenges
Dan YANG, Jiang LIU, Ran ZHANG, Fangqi LIU, Man OUYANG, Tao HUANG, Yunjie LIU
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (2): 34-41
doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200205
Abstract( 385 )   HTML PDF (770KB) (259 Knowledge map   
Network Architecture and Key Technologies for the Integrated Satellite and Terrestrial Mobile Communication System
Hui XU, Deshan MIAO, Shaoli KANG, Shaohui SUN
Space-Integrated-Ground Information Networks. 2020 Vol. 1 (2): 2-10
doi: 10.11959/j.issn.2096-8930.20200201
Abstract( 368 )   HTML PDF (1508KB) (490 Knowledge map   
Copyright Information
Competent Unit: Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China
Sponsor: Posts & Telecom Press Co., Ltd.
Guiding Unit: China Satellite Network Group Co., Ltd.
Publisher: China InfoCom Media Group
Editor-in-Chief: LU Jun Executive
Editor-in-Chief: WU Wei
Associate Editor-in-Chief: WANG Chunting, LI Jianming, LYU Ziping,ZHU Decheng, SUN Qibin,
LIU Hualu
Director of Editorial Department: NIU Xiaomin
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