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    20 September 2021, Volume 37 Issue 9
    Topic: 6G
    Knowledge-defined intent-based network autonomy
    Jingyu WANG, Cheng ZHOU, Lei ZHANG, Cong LIU, Zirui ZHUANG, Hongwei YANG, Danyang CHEN, Yanhong ZHU, Lu LU, Jianxin LIAO
    2021, 37(9):  1-13.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021220
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    The complexity of the network determines that the autonomy of the intention network can’t be achieved at one go.The key is to break through multiple problem domains of network management and control from a global perspective, to summarize the network rules, mechanisms and strategies into knowledge, to build the knowledge space of resource allocation in the whole scene, and finally to realize the ubiquitous intelligence of the intention network.Focusing on 6G intention network, which takes knowledge-defined intelligence as the key enabling technology to improve the perception and decision-making closed-loop ability of intention network, and constructs a self-learning, self-operating and self-maintaining intention network.Achieving full autonomy in 6G networks is a long-term goal, which requires step by step evolvements, from providing repeat operation alternatives, to performing perception and monitoring on network environment and equipment states, to making decisions according to a number of factors and strategies, to effectively sensing end-user experience, and finally to a fully autonomous intelligent network that senses the intention of operators and users, self-optimizes and self-evolves.

    6G context-aware wireless network
    Junshuai SUN, Yun ZHAO, Yingying WANG, Na LI, Huimin ZHANG, Xin SUN, Min YAN, Quan ZHAO, Gang LI, Xuan LIU, Guangyi LIU
    2021, 37(9):  14-19.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021227
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    Convergence of ICDT is one of the important technical trends in the evolution of wireless mobile communication.How to realize the convergence of wireless network and AI technology is an important topic in the evolution of wireless network.Based on the concept of native AI, AI was applied for wireless resources optimization.6G context-aware wireless network architecture was proposed and AI was introduced into RRM to form an intelligent controller (AI-driven RRM), which completed the intelligent wireless resource management.Driven by big data and artificial intelligence, intelligent management of wireless resources was realized.In the deployment, the intelligent controller is deployed according to its functions and supports dynamic function scaling, so that it can be deployed independently of base station to minimize the cost of hardware.

    Thinking of native artificial intelligence in 6G networks
    Qin LI, Weiyuan LI, Xiaowen SUN, Yushuang HU, Tao SUN
    2021, 37(9):  20-29.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021219
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    Facing the 6G era, the network will usher in new application scenarios and new performance requirements.Diversified application and communication scenarios, extremely heterogeneous communication networks, and extreme performance service requirements will all put forward higher requirements for mobile communication networks.On the basis of summarizing network intelligence in 5G and 5G-Advanced networks, the definition of intelligent-endogenesisin 6G networks and four major characteristics of 6G network architecture for intelligent-endogenesis were proposed, and the potential key technologies of intelligent-endogenesisin 6G network was analyzed, and finally combined with two application scenarios to further explore the concept of network architecture for intelligent-endogenesis.

    Application of reconfigurable intelligent surface in beamforming and information modulation
    Qiang CHENG, Junyan DAI, Junchen KE, Jingcheng LIANG, Siran WANG
    2021, 37(9):  30-37.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021226
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    In modern mobile communications, the randomness, uncertainty, and uncontrollability of wireless channels are the pivotalfactors that affect the communication quality, which often leads to the deterioration of the signal quality at the receiving terminal, and thereby limiting the rate and range of information transmission.In the emerging study of 6G technology, reconfigurable intelligent surface is one of the research directions under active discussions, which is an ultra-thin artificial surface composed of sub-wavelength structures with field programmability and spatiotemporal information modulation capabilities.The reconfigurable intelligent surface can manipulate electromagnetic waves accurately and efficiently, thus providing the possibility for reshaping the wireless propagation environment.In this review, the concept of the reconfigurable intelligent surface, the beam forming method based on spatiotemporal modulation, the wireless relay and the communication system based on the reconfigurable intelligent surface were reviewed and discussed.It demonstrates the great potential of reconfigurable intelligent surface in assisting mobile communication, and provides new ideas for the development of 6G.

    Faster-than-Nyquist signaling: value and challenges of 6G-oriented applications
    Xin SU, Sen WANG, Hongwen YANG, Jing JIN, Qixing WANG
    2021, 37(9):  38-47.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021222
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    The faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling technology overlaps multiple streams of data within a symbol period by compressing the transmit symbol time/frequency-domain interval, thus breaking the orthogonality of the Nyquist pulse waveform and achieving the purpose of transmitting more data in a limited bandwidth.A relatively comprehensive explanation of the technical principles of FTN was elaborated, its development status was sorted out, and the related key questions——the relationship between FTN capacity and Shannon capacity, and the intrinsic connection of related technologies were answered.Finally, The possibility of FTN application in 6G was discussed, and its value and challenges in 6G were presented.That is, FTN is a highly spectrally efficient transmission scheme that approximates Shannon's capacity, but excessive receiver complexity may be a key impediment to its use in 6G applications.

    Research and evaluation of sparse array for massive MIMO
    Mengting LOU, Jing JIN, Hanning WANG, Qixing WANG, Jiangzhou WANG
    2021, 37(9):  48-56.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021218
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    Massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) enables higher spectrum efficiency by deploying a large number of antenna elements.However, mMIMO will bring a substantial increase in the number of radio frequency (RF) channel, which will result in a sharp increase in cost.Therefore, it is necessary to design mMIMO with comprehensive consideration of the trade-off between the performance and the cost.Sparse array technology can approach the performance of the uniform array with less number of antenna elements by optimizing the position distribution and excitation amplitudes of the antenna elements, thereby reducing the number of RF channels and controlling the cost, and achieving a better cost-effective balance.Both link-level and system-level evaluations and analysis of sparse array based mMIMO that targets for 6G were performed under realistic simulation settings.The results show that with little performance loss, the sparse array based mMIMO can significantly reduce the number of antenna elements and the cost of base station infrastructure.

    OTFS technology research and prospect
    Hang LONG, Sen WANG, Linfei XU, Yinhua JIA, Lu DAI
    2021, 37(9):  57-63.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021221
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    Recently, a new multi-carrier modulation technique termed orthogonal time frequency space (OTFS) was proposed.In the OTFS modulation, the data symbols are modulated at the delay-Doppler plane and spread on all the time-frequency resource elements with the inverse symplectic finite Fourier transform.Compared with the conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique, the OTFS modulation performs better in the time-varying and frequency-selective channel.The state of art of OTFS was reviewed and summarized.Simulation results were presented to demonstrate the performance advantage of OTFS over the conventional OFDM.The remainder problems of multi-accessing, channel estimation and linear equalization in OTFS was given.The application of OTFS signal in joint Radar and communication system was also analyzed.

    End-to-end deterministic networking architecture and key technologies
    Peng LIU, Zongpeng DU, Yongjing LI, Lu LU, Xiaodong DUAN
    2021, 37(9):  64-73.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021223
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    New services such as remote control and cloud AR/VR, have put forward higher bandwidth and latency requirements than traditional network.6G-oriented network evolution needs end-to-end deterministic networking technology support.In view of the lack of global consideration of end-to-end latency guarantee in current technical standard research, it was pointed out that deterministic networking needs to solve the problem of single hop and global latency at the same time.An end-to-end deterministic networking architecture was built, as well as deterministic networking technical schemes across networking domain and protocol layer was proposed.Finally, according to the current difficulties of deterministic networking development, the corresponding promotion suggestions were put forward.

    Research and Development
    5G network slicing algorithm based on prediction
    Jiageng ZHANG, Min ZHU, Feng DU, Qi WANG, Jun LIU, Zhihai SUO, Li WANG
    2021, 37(9):  74-85.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021225
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    5G on line scenario needs short build time of network slice, it can use prediction algorithm to isolate network resource in advance to reduce the construction time of network slice.A 5G network slicing algorithm based on prediction was proposed, which used fourth square as cost function to predict the network resource requests with accepted accurate and lower complexity of algorithm.And then based on the prediction result, virtual nodes and links resource were allocated, and container was pulled up when network slice request arrives to network, the dynamic creation of network slices was completed.The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can get 90% accurate of prediction, and reduce 50% construction time of network slice, and improve the network utilization ration,when new network slice reusing the original network slice.

    Joint optimization of dispersion matrix and 3D constellation for STSK system based on improved genetic algorithm
    Xiaoping JIN, Jiayu LIU, Chen JIANG, Qiang GUO
    2021, 37(9):  86-94.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021228
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    Space-time shift keying (STSK) is a modulation scheme used in multi-input multi-output (MIMO) communication systems.It uses a pre-designed dispersion matrix set (DMS) to realize the flexible design of the system between multiplexing and diversity.An improved genetic algorithm (GA) was proposed to assist the joint optimization of DMS and 3D constellations, that is, the DMS and 3D constellations were jointly coded as the chromosome of GA , and the coding gain corresponding to the rank and determinant criterion was adopted as the overall fitness value.Through efficient selection and improved mutation and crossover strategies, DMS and 3D constellations with low bit error rate (BER) can be obtained.At the same time, the symmetry of the 3D constellation was used to greatly reduce the computational complexity of according to the fitness value the coding gain.The theoretical average paired error probability (ABEP) of the 3D STSK scheme was deducted.The simulation results show that, compared with the traditional GA and random search schemes, the improved GA proposed can significantly reduce the complexity of system implementation while ensuring BER performance.

    Physical layer security performance of MF relay selection systems
    Ying CHENG, Guangqiu LI, Jingjie SHEN, Liang WEI
    2021, 37(9):  95-104.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021213
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    Aimed at the poor security performance of single antenna multi-relay modify-and-forward (MF) cooperative wireless systems in collusion eavesdropping scenario, MF cooperative physical layer security systems combining source node transmit antenna selection (TAS) and multi-relay selection in collusion eavesdropping scenario were proposed.Two relay selection schemes were considered, namely, the optimal maximization of the main channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the suboptimal maximization of the source-relay link SNR.The closed-form expressions of the secrecy outage probability (SOP) and ergodic secure capacity (ESC) for the above MF cooperative wireless systems were derived.The numerical results of SOP and ESC of MF secure relay systems with optimal or suboptimal relay selection were consistent with the simulation results, which verifies the correctness of the above theoretical analysis.It also shows that the more the number of transmit antennas at the source node and relay nodes, and the less the number of eavesdropping nodes, the better the physical layer security performance of MF secure relay systems with optimal or suboptimal relay selection.

    FALB: a FC protocol link aggregation algorithm
    Zhaohui WANG, Jianliang SHEN, Xia ZHANG, Ting CHEN
    2021, 37(9):  105-111.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021215
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    Link aggregation is a common technology to increase the bandwidth by bundling multiple physical links into a logical link.However, in a switching network based on the fibre channel (FC) protocol, as the forwarding traffic continues to concentrate, traditional static link aggregation algorithms have problems of poor load balance and low reliability.A dynamic load balancing link aggregation algorithm flow adaptive load balancing (FALB) based on FC protocol messages was proposed, which could realize dynamic adaptive matching of traffic and a reconnection protection mechanism for broken links.The results show that compared with the static load balancing algorithm design, the algorithm mechanism could maintain the effective bandwidth ratio above 95%, effectively improving the load balancing characteristics and reliability of the aggregated link.

    Safe hierarchical virtual network mapping method based on clustering
    Xie LU, Lei XU, Manjun ZHANG
    2021, 37(9):  112-117.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021224
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    Based on the 5G network environment, a security hierarchical virtual network mapping method based on K-means clustering was proposed.In particular, the idea of node security classification and the combination of K-menas clustering algorithm was involved to solve the key problems of low security and low mapping efficiency existing in current virtual network mapping.Compared with traditional methods, this research method improves the efficiency of virtual node mapping and enhances the network resilience.

    Research on integration of government information system based on cloud computing
    Zhihong CHEN, Yuan YAO
    2021, 37(9):  118-128.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021199
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    Since the mid-1980s, China began to carry out the construction of government information, and the government information system has developed rapidly.It has played an important role in economic regulation, market supervision, social management and public services, and achieved remarkable results.Under the background of “one network for all”, a new architecture mode based on cloud computing and PaaS platform was put forward, and the horizontal expansion of chimney system by decoupling the relationship between hardware resources, database and middleware was discussed, so as to improve the operation efficiency of government data center and reduce the construction cost of government data center.In addition, through the integration of government information system and the construction of capacity opening how to break the constraints of “system chimney” and “data island” was discussed, the collaborative business ability and intelligent service ability of government were improved.

    Topic: 5G Technology and Networking Applications
    5G network intelligent scheduling based on core network analysis and decision
    Qingyang WANG, Zhibin YANG, Biao LONG, Haoquan LIANG
    2021, 37(9):  129-138.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021216
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    Larger bandwidth and complex technology of the 5G networks inevitably bring a significant increase in overall energy consumption, so green energy-saving of mobile networks has attracted widespread attention.The long-term coexistence of 5G and 4G, as well as the wide coverage of low-frequency and the wide bandwidth characteristics of high-frequency of 5G, enable different types of services to be carried by different carriers of 5G or 4G respectively.Based on the above considerations, a 5G network intelligent scheduling scheme based on corenetwork analysis and decision was proposed, which could schedule different types of services to different radio access and frequencies for carrying, so as to achieve service assurance and energy-saving.Simulation results reveal that, compared with the existing schedule scheme within radio access network, 5G network intelligent scheduling has advantages in energy saving while ensuring quality of service.Finally, the progress of international standardization of 5G network intelligent scheduling was introduced.

    A novel CWDM bearer scheme for 5G fronthaul network
    Ming CHENG, Zhe DU, Dezhi ZHANG
    2021, 37(9):  139-146.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021206
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    With the rapid growth of 5G network traffic, the bearer requirement for 6-channel 25 Gbit/s fronthaul has become increasingly obvious.The main schemes and standardizations of fronthaul technology in the existing network were introduced.A novel bearer scheme based on CWDM and optical circulator to satisfy the requirements for 6-channel 25 Gbit/s fronthaul with low cost was proposed.The advantages and challenges of the scheme were analyzed.Tests in laboratory and pilots in actual network were introduced.

    SPN planning and networking architecture in townships for 5G services
    Xu DENG, Cheng CHEN
    2021, 37(9):  147-152.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021210
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    slicing packet network (SPN) has become one of the technologies of the mainstream transmission bearer network for 5G services with its technical advantages.Along with the rapid development of 5G services in towns and rural areas and the higher and broader demand for 5G services from various 5G vertical industries, the SPN deployed in urban and county areas in the early stage could no longer fully meet the service demand.To meet the demand for 5G service development in townships and rural areas, SPN need to be considered down to the township level.Based on the development trend of 5G services in townships, the SPN construction conditions were comprehensively considered in townships, combined with SPN architecture, network topology and other conditions, a township SPN architecture model was built and an in-depth analysis of the actual application scenario construction plan was obtained in a local city, providing reference and ideas for the later township SPN construction.

    Performance of logistics intelligent storage scene in 5G private network
    Shilei DONG, Jingbo ZHAO, Peng HUANG
    2021, 37(9):  153-158.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021151
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    Intelligent warehousing introduces intelligent operation terminals in the logistics warehousing link to realize the automation of the assembly line to execute various warehousing business and it needs to rely on high-quality network services to realize tasks such as real-time data perception, allocation, and job control.In different warehousing operation processes and operation areas, there are differentiated intelligent terminals, operation scenarios and communication requirements.The actual warehousing scenarios was combined to achieve 5G private network coverage for smart warehousing, network quality assurance under the deep integration mechanism of 5G private network and warehousing industry was explored, and a customized regional network deployment plan was proposed, which plays a role as a benchmark model for the full implementation of the 5G private network-based intelligent storage system.

    Research on 5G base station radiation safety and corresponding network planning
    Hao XU, Hongyi CAO
    2021, 37(9):  159-167.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021196
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    With the rapid development of 5G network, the radiation safety of base stations is a hot issue of public concern.As 5G has the characteristics of high frequency band and large bandwidth, ultra-dense heterogeneous network applications are becoming more common.The impact of electromagnetic radiation from typical 5G base stations on the human body was analyzed, and the safety distances of base stations with different powers were calculated in detail.Based on various common 5G base station equipment forms such as outdoor macro stations, outdoor pole stations, telephone booth base stations, and indoor micro stations, the safe area of different scenarios was analyzed and theoretically calculated.The results were verified based on field test and specific networking planning recommendations were proposed.

    4G/5G low-cost wireless coverage scheme based on tapping the potential of existing networks
    Dan YANG, Jing ZHANG, Peijin LV, Yun LU, Zhanchun YANG
    2021, 37(9):  168-174.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2021211
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    Relevant research data shows that, the cost of China's 5G network deployment is expected to be about three times that of 4G.The network architecture, key technical principles and source hardware characteristics of the existing 4G and 5G networks were analyzed and studied.Three ideas for tapping the potential were proposed, which are using that how to use the old 4G resources in the construction of 5G networks, releasing 4G resources through 5G network deployment and maximizing use of 4G/5G sources, thereby reducing the investment cost and upgrade difficulty of the network.

Copyright Information
Authorized by: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Institute of Communications
Posts and Telecom Press Co., Ltd.
Publisher: Beijing Xintong Media Co., Ltd.
Editor-in-Chief: Chen Shanzhi
Editorial Director: Li Caishan
Address: F2, Beiyang Chenguang Building, Shunbatiao No.1 Courtyard, Fengtai District, Beijing, China
Postal Code: 100079
Tel: 010-53879277
Mailing Code: 2-397
ISSN 1000-0801
CN 11-2103/TN
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