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    20 November 2022, Volume 38 Issue 11
    Research and Development
    A survey of optical/electric hybrid switching technology for satellite Internet
    Zhenhua ZHANG, Siyue SUN, Gaosai LIU, Long WANG, Xinglong JIANG, Lin DONG, Guang LIANG
    2022, 38(11):  1-10.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022284
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    In the space environment where laser links and microwave links coexist, the development of satellite Internet optical/electric hybrid switching will help promoting the construction of air-space-ground integration.According to the characteristics and transmission requirements of satellite Internet services, the current status of electrical domain switching technology and optical domain switching technology were investigated and analyzed, and the applicability of existing switching technologies in the construction of satellite Internet was summarized.At the same time, according to the analysis results, the end-to-end network on the satellite was constructed, and based on this, the design of the optical/electric hybrid switching architecture on the satellite was completed.It mainly included the interface, electrical domain adaptation module, optical domain adaptation module, optical/electric convergence module, optical switching module, packet switching module and management control module.

    Research on characteristic model-based atmospheric duct interference control in TDD wireless communication system
    Xiaoyun WANG, Wei DENG, Long ZHANG, Xin SU, Shizhuo ZHAO
    2022, 38(11):  11-23.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022286
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    Atmospheric duct interference is a seriousinternal interference of large-scale TDD wireless communication system according to specific meteorological conditions.The causes and classification of the atmospheric duct interference were analyzed firstly.Then a typical quantitative interference signal propagation model of inland and sea atmospheric duct were proposed and the power characteristics of massive interference sources in time domain and frequency domain were verified.The feature of the proposed model is based on a large number of data in real 4G/5G network environment, which is of great significance for the prediction and cancellation of atmospheric duct interference.Finally, four design principles were proposed for the frame structure and networking in TDD system to control atmospheric duct interference based on the characteristics of the proposed model.The verification in 5G network shows that the uplink interference drops more than 10 dB by the proposed interference control principles.It will also be instructive for the design of 6G system.

    Time series data based AI operation and maintenance system of cloud network collaboration platform
    Ruiying CHENG, Pan ZHANG, Yu XIAO, Yujie QIAO, Anyi ZHANG
    2022, 38(11):  24-35.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022290
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    The expansion of cloud computing in enterprise applications is not only the expansion of platform scale, but also the extension of platform applications.“Cloud-network collaboration” and “micro-service” are important trends in the evolution of enterprise cloud platforms.As the importance of enterprise information construction continues to rise, the operation and maintenance of the microservice-oriented cloud-network collaboration platform faces great challenges.The challenges faced by the operation and maintenance were analyzed, the requirements for artificial intelligence operation and maintenance of the platform were sorted out, a technical system for artificial intelligence operation and maintenance of the platform based on time-series data analysis was proposed, and an artificial intelligence operation and maintenance subsystem for the cloud network collaborative platform was designed.The proposed technical system and system design are practical and generalizable, and can be used as a reference for the technical approach of enterprise cloud platform construction and optimization.

    An information-DNA based method of information dissemination and evolution on Internet
    Panpan LI, Zhengxia XIE, Zengkai WANG, Rui JIN
    2022, 38(11):  36-46.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022280
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    To solve the problem of how to trace the information content dissemination and evolution process on the Internet, an information DNA-based method of information dissemination and evolution on Internet was proposed.Firstly, semantic extraction of Internet information content was performed based on domain knowledge to form a key feature set of information content.Then, using the key feature set of information content, an information DNA construction method based on locally sensitive hashing was proposed.Finally, the usability and effectiveness of the proposed method were verified by public dataset.The problem of traceability of Internet homologous information dissemination and evolution process was solved by using information DNA as the core identifier, which was of great practical significance for the study of Internet information content dissemination, evolution tracing and the governance and guidance of Internet public opinion events.

    Beamwidth of beamforming vectors in millimeter-wave channels
    Binjian LOU, Haiquan WANG, Yi HUANG, Ziwei LI, Yunyun YU
    2022, 38(11):  47-56.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022288
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    The beamforming technology is one of the core technologies in 5G and it can concentrate the transmitted energy in a specified area, thereby improving the performance of the system.But it is because of this feature that the energy is concentrated,any changes of the channel may cause to keep the receiver outside the specified area, and therefore, the performance of robustness is reduced.The concept of the beam width of a beamforming is one of the indicators to measure this tradeoff.Existing definition of beam widths are based on antennas, not on beamforming.Interms of beamforming, the definition of beam width was given and studied with the help of the concept in Grassmannian manifolds.On this basis, the method of beam width was discussed.It is found that the beam width of beamforming is closely related to the number of the transmitting antennas.The more the number of antennas, the more concentrated the energy, and the weaker robustness is.

    Improved grey wolf optimization algorithm based service function chain mapping algorithm
    Yue ZHANG, Junnan ZHANG, Xiaochun WU, Chen HONG, Jingjing ZHOU
    2022, 38(11):  57-72.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022275
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    With the rise of new Internet applications such as the industrial Internet, the Internet of vehicles, and the metaverse, the network’s requirements for low latency, reliability, security, and certainty are facing severe challenges.In the process of virtual network deployment, when using network function virtualization technology, there were problems such as low service function chain mapping efficiency and high deployment resource overhead.The node activation cost and instantiation cost was jointly considered, an integer linear programming model with the optimization goal of minimizing the average deployment network cost was established, and an improved grey wolf optimization service function chain mapping (IMGWO-SFCM) algorithm was proposed.Three strategies: mapping scheme search based on acyclic KSP algorithm, mapping scheme coding and improvement based on reverse learning and nonlinear convergence were added to the standard grey wolf optimization algorithm to form this algorithm.The global search and local search capabilities were well balanced and the service function chain mapping scheme was quickly determined by IMGWO-SFCM.Compared with the comparison algorithm, IMGWO-SFCM reduces the average deployment network cost by 11.86% while ensuring a higher service function chain request acceptance rate.

    Study on the 5GC security situational awareness system
    Yatian LIU, Bowen HU, Maofei CHEN, Dongxin LIU
    2022, 38(11):  73-85.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022263
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    As the key infrastructure for the next generation mobile network, 5G confronts more complex network security threats, targeting the new architecture and techniques that 5G evolves.Also as a key component of the 5G architecture, 5GC security has become an essential research topic.5GC security situational awareness aims at understanding the current security situation and making tendency predictions in near future, which is an effective technique to counter network threats under 5G scenarios and enhance 5G operations more securely and effectively.The security situational awareness was firstly introduced, 5G particularly 5GC security demands were analyzed, then the detail design of 5GC security situational awareness system was addressed, including the system architecture and key techniques.

    Intelligent anti-jamming decision algorithm of bivariate frequency hopping pattern based on ET-PPO
    Yibo CHEN, Zhijin ZHAO
    2022, 38(11):  86-95.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022264
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    In order to further improve its anti-interference ability in complex electromagnetic environment, a PPO algorithm based on weighted importance sampling and eligibility traces (ET-PPO) was proposed.On the basis of the traditional frequency hopping pattern, time-varying parameters were introduced, and the bivariate frequency hopping pattern decision problem was modeled as a Markov decision problem through the construction of the state-action-reward triple.Aiming at the high variance problem of the sample update method of an actor network of the PPO algorithm, weighted importance sampling was introduced to reduce the variance, and the action selection strategy of Beta distribution was used to enhance the stability of the learning stage.Aiming at the problem of slow convergence speed of the evaluator network, the eligibility trace method was introduced, which better balanced the convergence speed and the global optimal solution.The algorithm comparison simulation results in different electromagnetic interference environments show that ET-PPO has better adaptability and stability, and has better performance against obstruction interference and sweep frequency interference.

    Research on OSU based M-OTN technology innovation and application
    Yadong GONG, Ruiquan JING, Heng ZHOU, Junjie LI, Xiaoli HUO
    2022, 38(11):  96-105.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022267
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    With SDH and MSTP networks facing withdrawal from the network, OTN will replace SDH/MSTP networks and sink to the edge of the network.At the same time, the requirements of customers’ services are also changing rapidly, but the packet enhanced OTN has various problems and challenges in carrying these services.Therefore, the M-OTN technology system based on OSU was proposed, and the technical advantages of M-OTN/OSU were comprehensively analyzed by combining its technical essence and experimental data.The results show that M-OTN/OSU has obvious advantages over packet enhanced OTN technology in many aspects.The application and deployment of M-OTN/OSU in the field network and network evolution are of great concern.Combined with the technical characteristics of M-OTN/OSU and the deployed devices in the field network, the research of M-OTN/OSU in networking scheme and network evolution strategy was shared.

    Research on broadcast and TV system interference of 700 MHz band in 5G network
    Peijin LYU, Yun LU, Xiaokang YANG, Dan YANG, Yiyan YIN, Zhengyi GUO
    2022, 38(11):  106-112.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022274
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    There is a risk of co-channel interference from broadcast TV systems in the operation of 5G networks in the 700 MHz band, which seriously affects the network performance.Firstly, from the frequency configuration of broadcast TV system, the principle of interference by broadcast TV system in 5G network in 700 MHz band was discussed.Then, the interference characteristics of broadcast TV system were analyzed, and the interference identification algorithm of broadcast TV system based on frequency domain information was proposed for these characteristics.Finally, the accuracy of the algorithm identification was tested and verified to achieve the goal of interference optimization and avoidance through interference identification.

    Research and applications on intelligent operations of cross-professional carrying network
    Sai HAN, Dongyue ZHANG, Zelin WANG, Guangquan WANG, Ao LI, Qiukeng FANG, Hongbing MA
    2022, 38(11):  113-122.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022269
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    With the increasingly close integration of artificial intelligence technology and networks, the operation and production of networks in the future should be fully digitalized, automated and intelligent.At present, fault locating of cross-professional network mainly relies on operation and maintenance staff of each professional network to analyze and dispatch orders, resulting in long trouble clearing time and repeated orders.In order to save manual work, with the help of automation and artificial intelligent technologies, a cross-professional network intelligent operation and maintenance system was developed and applied in real network.The associated topology information of IPRAN and OTN, along with the real-time IPRAN and OTN alarm data were analyzed, the root cause alarm was located accurately, the fault location was determined, and dispatch order was achieved automatically.A automatic cross-professional fault diagnosis capability was built by the system, which reduced the fault locating time from traditional two minutes to tens of milliseconds, therefore, the manual work was reduced by more than 90%, and 95% fault types of the existing network could be covered.

    Engineering and Application
    Research and practice of 5G edge cloud based port unified communication scheme
    Yan NING, Lei ZHANG, Xiaoyuan LU
    2022, 38(11):  123-135.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022254
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    With the advantages of distribution, flexible networking, rapid deployment, and local data offloading, 5G edge cloud has a wide range of application prospects in the vertical industrial field such as ports, and also puts forward certain requirements for the realization of unified communications in ports.On the basis of studying the unified communication architecture of ports based on 5G edge cloud, a functional framework of the 5G edge cloud that realized a comprehensive perception of various elements of the port site and supported the transformation of automated services was proposed.The functional framework could be well applied to the unified hosting of wired and wireless network integration in port scenarios, and could be used as the network infrastructure of unified communication of port networks in the current complex environment.Finally, the scheme was applied to a port terminal for practical verification.

    5G leading digital technology enables the rapid development of agricultural Internet
    Gang AN, Yunyong ZHANG, Jinshi WANG, Xuehong YANG
    2022, 38(11):  136-142.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022252
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    With the development of “new infrastructure”, digital village construction of China has ushered in a new climax, digital village of building is not only the strategic direction of rural revitalization, but also an important content of building a digital China.Agricultural Internet is a key link in the construction of digital village.As 5G and other digital technologies continue to penetrated into various fields of agricultural production, China’s agricultural Internet has entered a new stage of rapid development.Focusing on the new changes brought by 5G and other digital technologies to agricultural Internet, through 5G, satellite remote sensing, UAV, artificial intelligence and machine vision to promoted the digital transformation of agricultural production and operation, the future development status and trend of agricultural Internet in China were deeply discussed.

    5G MEC system security capability deployment scheme
    Yunyi LIU, Jianmin ZHANG, Xiaoli FENG, Liwei ZHANG
    2022, 38(11):  143-152.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022265
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    Multi-access edge computing (MEC), as the core differentiated capability of 5G, is the key technology for telecom operators to build private 5G networks for enterprises.With the increase of 5G MEC nodes, security risks and protection schemes are increasingly concerned.Based on the description of 5G MEC system architecture, the potential security risks were analyzed.On this basis, the security capability deployment architecture and scheme of the 5G MEC system were proposed, and the deployment case was introduced.Finally, the current problems and challenges in the deployment of MEC security capabilities were discussed to provide references for subsequent research and development.

    A long-time & short-time prediction based 5G base station energy-saving policy
    Miaomiao ZHANG, Hao ZHAO, Yan ZHOU, Yang ZHANG, Li YU, Yanping LIANG, Chunjie FENG
    2022, 38(11):  153-162.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022043
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    With the development of the mobile communication technology and the acceleration of 5G commercial network deployment, energy consumption of 5G, which will continue to raise the operating expense significantly.How to maximize the energy efficiency while ensuring service experience and equipment safety has always been one of the research focus in the industry.With the challenges including complexity of network architecture and variety of base station types, an AI-based energy-saving technology including policy generation and closed-loop security assurance of “perception, prediction, analysis, and decision” was introduced.After calibration and validation based on the offline dataset, the false-switch-off rate is less than 2%, and the recall rate is not fewer than 84%.Further study shows that the technology has greater potential on energy-saving.

    Digital research and implementation of cloud-network planning of telecom operators
    Xiaoming XIONG, Jing ZHAO
    2022, 38(11):  163-168.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022287
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    Based on the perspective of digital transformation of telecom operators, a data-driven cloud-network development planning system was proposed systematically, six key digital capabilities were built, and a cloud-network planning digital platform was designed and implemented, which could be used for scenarios such as fine planning of target networks, accurate prediction of edge computing, etc., and the application prospects of digital twins in the field of future cloud-network planning were discussed.The proposed system has guiding and reference significance for operators to promote cloud-network integration strategies and promote high-quality development.

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Authorized by: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Institute of Communications
Posts and Telecom Press Co., Ltd.
Publisher: Beijing Xintong Media Co., Ltd.
Editor-in-Chief: Chen Shanzhi
Editorial Director: Li Caishan
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ISSN 1000-0801
CN 11-2103/TN
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