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    20 March 2022, Volume 38 Issue 3
    Topic: 5G-Advanced
    Towards converged, intelligent, low-carbon characterized 5G-Advanced technologies
    Xiaodong DUAN, Tao SUN
    2022, 38(3):  3-9.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022045
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    With the expansion of 5G deployment scale, the industry has paid more attention to 5G evolution.It is not only the extension of the existing 5G technology, but also a transition from 5G to 6G.In April 2021, 3GPP named 5G evolution as 5G-Advanced.The process of 5G-Advanced was introduced.The status of 5G technology so far was summarized, and the direction of 5G evolution technologies were analyzed.Converged, intelligent and low- carbon as the three characteristics of the 5G evolution was proposed.More specially, the multimedia enhancement, heterogeneous network convergence and network big data analysis were introduced.Considering the network technology development, difficulties and key aspects of the system design were also identified.

    Key technologies and evolution of 5G non-terrestrial network
    Deshan MIAO, Li CHAI, Jiancheng SUN, Ting KE, Yuzhen LIU, Xiaodong XU, Nan HU, Shanzhi CHEN
    2022, 38(3):  10-21.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022056
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    Non-terrestrial network (NTN) in 5G system is expected to provide communication services via near-earth space access and satellite access, which means 5G network has expanded its service area from land to space.Standardization status and key technolgies of 5G 3GPP Release 17 NTN were presented, including key differences compared 5G TN, especially in network architecture, time and frequency synchronization, HARQ, and mobility management etc.Moreover, the main candidate techniques in 3GPP Release 18 NTN and beyond were explored, aiming to outline a vision for NTN evolution.Based on the analysis of 5G NTN and its evolution, it was observed that the integration of TN and NTN would be an obvious technique trend, which paved a way to a unified system applied for space, land and sea.

    Development and prospect of sidelink technology
    Boyuan ZHANG, Xueyan HUANG, Zhenshan ZHAO, Shichang ZHANG, Teng MA, Liang LIU
    2022, 38(3):  22-36.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022049
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    Sidelink technology has been widely used in V2X scenarios.The potential technical consideration for Rel-18 feature set will be given out, including the traditional enhancement orientation for traditional sidelink technology, such as carrier aggregation and sidelink-unlisence.The scenario extension for sidelink relay, such as UE to UE relay and multi-connection in relay scenario, the application of sidelink technology in accurate positioning scenario.In addition, how to combine sidelink technical with other latest technology was discussed, such as reflective intelligent surface (RIS) and blockchain technology, to solve its own shortage.

    Technology development mode of communication/sensing/computing/intelligence integration
    Xiangyang DUAN, Li YANG, Shuqiang XIA, Zhiqiang HAN, Feng XIE
    2022, 38(3):  37-48.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022039
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    Various new functions and services related to communication/sensing/computing/intelligence have been targeted, developed and fused into the existing 5G-Advanced and emerging 6G new system.The technical scenarios and use cases of communication/sensing/computing/intelligence integration and its expectation for technique mode requirementin 5G-Advanced and 6G different phases were addressed, meanwhile five characteristics of its technology development mode were extracted.The proposed viewpoints may guide the research and development of 5G-Advanced system and standardization process of 6G new system in future, leading to more effective and profitable applications and maximization of business value from communication/sensing/computing/intelligence integration.

    5G-Advanced E2E deterministic transmission analysis and system design
    Haiyang SUN, Yi SHI, Yan LI, Qiang FAN, Xin MA
    2022, 38(3):  49-56.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022055
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    Because of the advantages of flexible deployment, low cable cost, strong support for mobility and comprehensive QoS control and high scalability, cellular networks had been widely used in factory scenarios.At the same time, the deterministic service in the factory also puts forward certain requirements for cellular network control.Therefore, in discussions related to 5G-Advanced, the industry also proposes to research a 5G cellular network that supports ultra-low latency.To meet the delay requirement of 2 ms, two key technologies, deterministic N3 interface and cross-layer scheduling optimization were proposed to reduce the transmission or waiting delay on the transport network and air interface.These two technologies were the enhancement based on the current communication mechanism and network protocol between cellular network and deterministic network.The high delay requirement of deterministic services can be met well without changing the existing network protocol too much.

    Analysis on 5G XR and enhancement on media service
    Xiaonan SHI, Chunshan XIONG, Hui NI, Dan WANG
    2022, 38(3):  57-64.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022053
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    5G XR and enhancement on media service are very important business scenarios in 5G-Advanced network.With the increasing user demands for emerging new media services, 5G network needs to make corresponding enhancements for media services such as XR.The main business scenarios of XR and augmented multimedia were mainly introduced, including immersive virtual reality, augmented reality, remote control technology based on mixed reality, virtual factory, remote unmanned aerial vehicle control, etc.For the typical business scenarios of XR, there were already some specifications and on-going studies in 3GPP.Based on these existing activities, 5G network need further enhancements including 5G QoS framework for XR service, coordination between network and application, synchronization of flows of multi-user and multi-stream, power saving of terminals and network etc., so that the 5G network could provide better support to 5G XR and enhanced media services leveraging the above enablers.

    High-accuracy positioning for 5G-Advanced wireless systems
    Bin REN, Zhenyu ZHANG, Rongyi FANG, Xiaotao REN, Jianxiang LI, Yunjing HOU, Zhe YU, Shaohui SUN
    2022, 38(3):  65-73.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022041
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    With the rapid development of positioning technology, high-accuracy positioning technology for 5G-Advanced is receiving more and more attention.Firstly, the current situation of 5G positioning standards based on the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 16/ Release17 and the enhancement directions of the 5G-Advanced positioning technology based on 3GPP Release 18 were introduced.Secondly, the 5G orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal model and three key algorithms for carrier phase positioning technology were mainly studied, including: carrier phase measurement algorithm based on phase locked loop, double-difference algorithm based on reference user equipment (UE), and UE position calculation algorithm based on extended Kalman filter.Finally, the low-power high-accuracy positioning technology and the positioning accuracy enhancement technology based on positioning reference unit were analyzed.

    Study of channel state information feedback based on artificial intelligence
    Qiuping HUANG, Xiaofeng LIU, Qiubin GAO, Zhengxuan LIU, Liqiang JIN, Shaohui SUN
    2022, 38(3):  74-83.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022051
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    Accurate acquisition of CSI (channel state information) is the key to the performance of massive MIMO.In current communication systems, when the reciprocity of uplink and downlink is not ideal, codebook-based CSI feedback is used for downlink CSI acquisition.With the increase of antenna scale, codebook-based CSI feedback needs more and more overhead.The CSI feedback compression method based on AI (artificial intelligence) was presented, and the standardization impact, communication process and challenges of CSI feedback based on AI were analyzed.Besides, evaluation results were provided.The evaluation results show that compared with codebook-based CSI feedback based on frequency domain basis vector compression, CSI feedback based on AI can significantly reduce the feedback cost at the same feedback accuracy.

    Evolution and standardization progress for NR MIMO enhancement
    Nanxi LI, Jianchi ZHU, Jing GUO, Hang YIN, Xiaoming SHE
    2022, 38(3):  84-92.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022038
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    As one of the key technologies of 5G , massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) has played an important role in the commercial deployment of 5G networks.Based on the deployment experience of 5G systems, 3GPP Release 17 has done a series of standardization work on MIMO evolution enhancement.Focusing on 3GPP standardization work, the standardization progress of related MIMO enhancement schemes, especially for multi-beam enhancement and multi-TRP enhancement, was introduced and analyzed.In the end, potential future work of 3GPP Release 18 MIMO enhancement was summarized.

    Research of 5G NR RedCap technology
    Hanyang LI, Weiwen WENG, Nan LI, Long ZHANG, Jinxia CHENG
    2022, 38(3):  93-101.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022044
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    Faced to industrial wireless sensors, video surveillance, wearable devices, RedCap UE (reduced-capability user equipment) was proposed in 3GPP Release 17 (Rel-17), which could greatly reduce the costs of UE under the premise of satisfying the requirements of these use cases.Firstly, the standardization progress of 5G RedCap was introduced.Then, typical use cases of 5G RedCap technology were analyzed.After that, deep research was carried on the complexity reduction characteristics as well as the related gains brought by RedCap technology from two aspects of UE optimization and network performance improvement.Finally, the development potential and the evolution direction in the future were summarized.

    Low power wake-up receiver and wake-up signal technology in 5G-Advanced
    Xueming PAN, Xin QU
    2022, 38(3):  102-112.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022058
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    Power consumption is critical for wearable and IoT (Internet of things) devices.Device standby with micro-watt level power consumption can be enabled by using low-power wake-up receiver/wake-up signal technology, which can increase the device battery life and are widely applicable to smart wearables, Internet of things, smart phones, etc.Study item on low power wake-up receiver and wake-up signal technology has been approved in 3GPP, and was considered as one of the iconic technologies for mobile devices in 5G-Advanced.Preliminary discussion on low power wake-up receiver and wake-up signal technology were provided, including use case and requirements, low power wake-up receiver structure, wake-up signal design, mobility and measurement aspects, co-existence with legacy system, anti-interference design.

    Research and Development
    Review on resources allocation and pricing methods in mobile edge computing
    Lushan ZOU, Xiaowen HUANG, Jingmin YANG, Yifeng ZHENG, Guanglin ZHANG, Wenjie ZHANG
    2022, 38(3):  113-132.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022022
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    Mobile edge computing (MEC) has ability of reducing network load and transmission delay, and improving user service experience by offloading computing tasks to edge servers.Therefore, MEC has attracted extensive attention and become a key technology of 5G.As one of the main issues of MEC, resource allocation has great significance in improving energy efficiency, shortening task delay and reducing cost.Firstly, the basic concept, reference architecture and technical advantages of MEC were introduced.Then, the up-to-date achievements of resources allocation and pricing strategies were summarized from both technical and economic aspects.Finally, some possible problems and challenges associated with resource allocation and pricing strategies in MEC were discussed, and the enabling methods to address these challenges were also proposed to provide reference for subsequent research and development.

    Physical layer security for SWIPT-NOMA system in presence of randomly located eavesdroppers
    Yifan DING, Guangqiu LI, Hui LI
    2022, 38(3):  133-142.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022059
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    The combination of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technologies can improve spectrum efficiency of wireless system and solve the power supply problem of user nodes.However, when energy-harvesting receivers want to maliciously eavesdrop on confidential information sent by the base station, the information security transmission of SWIPT-NOMA system will be threatened.To enhance its physical layer security (PLS) performance, the PLS model of SWIPT-NOMA system with transmit antenna selection and power split strategies was proposed.When the spatial location randomly distributed energy-harvesting receivers obey the Poisson point process, the approximate expressions for the secrecy outage probability and non-zero secrecy capacity probability of SWIPT-NOMA system were derived by using the spatial Poisson probability generation function.Numerical and simulation results verify the accuracy of the expressions.The above expressions can also be used to study the influence of eavesdropper density, the distance between the base station and the far and near information receivers, the number of transmitting antennas and the power split factor on PLS performance of SWIPT-NOMA system.

    Intelligent prediction method of network performance based on graph neural network
    Yijiang LI, Huibiao YE, Renhua XIE, Jiali LOU, Danna ZHUANG, Chuanhuang LI
    2022, 38(3):  143-157.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022062
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    There are some problems in the traditional network performance prediction technology, such as incomplete network state acquisition and poor accuracy of network performance evaluation.Combined with the characteristics of graph neural network learning and reasoning network relational data and the captured global information of the network, on the basis of the current network performance prediction methods, an intelligent prediction method of network performance based on graph neural network was proposed.Aiming at the complex network information, through the research of network system abstraction and network performance modeling, the network information can be transformed into the graph space convolution was used to process the message passing process of graph network nodes to realize the relationship reasoning between network information.The graph neural network model for network performance prediction was studied, and a graph neural network architecture which could deal with traffic matrix, network topology, routing strategy and node configuration was proposed.Finally, the experiments show that the model can better achieve accurate prediction of the network performance including delay, jitter and packet loss rate.

    Estimation of wireless channel fading model in maritime communication for complex meteorological environment
    Yasheng DAI, Bolin MA, Guangxue YUE
    2022, 38(3):  158-171.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022061
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    Due to the influence of complex marine environmental factors such as sparse scattering of electromagnetic wave on the ocean surface, wave shadow fading, complex meteorological environment.It is extremely hard to model the fading of wireless channel in maritime communication environment.After analyzing the influence of meteorological environment and multipath channel fading via direct-path, specular-path and diffuse-path on marine wireless communication channel fading, the estimation of wireless channel fading model in maritime communication for complex meteorological environment (EWCFM-CME) was proposed.An improved bee colony algorithm was designed to estimation the parameter of EWCFM-CME.In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of search algorithm, an iterative function with sin(·) function as operator was designed in search scheme of bee colonies.The leading bee received the detection bee solution to update itself with probability P.It prevents the solution algorithm from falling into local optimization.The simulation results show that, compared with fluctuate two-ray (FTR) fading model and round earth loss (REL) model, the mean absolute error (MAE) of EWCFM-CME increased by 13.58% and 11.43% By comparing EWCFM-CME with cuckoo search, genetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm, the search time is reduced by 60.48%, 45.18% and 43.23%, respectively.

    Approach of glowworm swarm optimization based virtual machine placement
    Shengchao XU, Maohua XIONG, Tianqi ZHOU
    2022, 38(3):  172-182.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2022060
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    In a cloud data center, one of the most important problems is using novel virtual machine placement strategy to promote the physical resource utilization.An approach of glowworm swarm optimization based virtual machine placement for cloud data centers called GSO-VMP was proposed.In the virtual placement, GSO algorithm was used to find a near-optimal solution.Each physical host had a luciferin value which represented the available CPU utilization.Whenever a VM was placed to a physical host, luciferin value of this physical host was updated.GSO-VMP algorithm could search the more available physical host within local range and thus the virtual migration numbers had been decreased and low energy consumption had been obtained.GSO-VMP had been evaluated using CloudSim with real-world workload data.The experimental results show that GSO-VMP has good performance in resource wastage and energy consumption.

Copyright Information
Authorized by: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Institute of Communications
Posts and Telecom Press Co., Ltd.
Publisher: Beijing Xintong Media Co., Ltd.
Editor-in-Chief: Chen Shanzhi
Editorial Director: Li Caishan
Address: F2, Beiyang Chenguang Building, Shunbatiao No.1 Courtyard, Fengtai District, Beijing, China
Postal Code: 100079
Tel: 010-53879277
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E-mail: dxkx@ptpress.com.cn
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ISSN 1000-0801
CN 11-2103/TN
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