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    20 March 2023, Volume 39 Issue 3
    Topic: Intelligent Connected Vehicle and V2X
    A survey of V2X security protection technologies
    Fuyuan CHEN, Zhenjiang DONG, Jiankuo DONG, Minjie XU
    2023, 39(3):  1-15.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023046
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    The vehicle-road-cloud collaborative V2X system has gradually become a national strategy, and the safety of V2X is related to driving security, life security, property security and even national security, which has increasingly become a hot spot for industry research.Firstly, the overall situation of the V2X security industry and the technology architecture of vehicle-road-cloud collaboration were introduced.Secondly, based on the “vehicle-road-cloud” technology system of V2X, the current status of domestic and international research was discussed, and the remaining problems and challenges in the field of V2X security protection were analyzed from three levels: V2X terminal security, roadside security and cloud security.Finally, the future development and research focus of the V2X security and protection technology were foreseen.

    System architecture, challenges and prospects of 2S-city construction
    Chunye MA, Hao CHEN, Jiankun PENG, Shuangzhi YU
    2023, 39(3):  16-23.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023043
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    As the most important application scenario in the process of the transformation of China’s automobile industry to electrification, intelligence, connectivity and sharing, the pilot project of smart city infrastructure and intelligent connected vehicles (2S-city) is still in the transition and demonstration stage, and there is still a distance from commercialization and marketization.Starting from the core problems and strategic significance of 2S-city construction, the roadside infrastructure architecture and platform function construction were described, the positive development process of system engineering that should be followed was introduced, and the future development orientation and suggestions were analyzed.

    Research on cross-domain cooperation deployment of V2X infrastructure
    Yuming GE, Qiqi MAO
    2023, 39(3):  24-31.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023036
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    Infrastructure is the foundation of the integration and innovative development of the vehicle to everything (V2X) industry.With the capabilities of reliable communication, accurate perception, and real-time computing, it supports the improvement of intelligent-connected vehicles, intelligent transportation and information and communication.On the basis of studying the scope and current situation of the new type V2X infrastructure, the challenges in cross-domain cooperation of it’s construction and service capability were analyzed.The framework of “physical separation and logic coordination” infrastructure architecture was proposed.Finally, the cross-domain cooperation of the new type V2X infrastructure at home and abroad was discussed, with corresponding development suggestions.

    From ICV 1.0 to ICV 2.0: real-time digital twin city construction for the coordinated development of ICV and smart city
    Siyang LIU, Yunfei ZHANG
    2023, 39(3):  32-44.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023040
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    Based on the development status and industry challenges of intelligent connected vehicles (ICV), the concepts and development strategies of ICV 1.0 and ICV 2.0 were proposed.Pan-V2X which aimed to achieve the breakthrough of ICV 1.0 and the vehicle-city coordination platform which was the core platform of ICV 2.0 were introduced.The vision of ICV 2.0 was to build transport real-time digital twin based on ICV and real-time digital twin city for coordinated development of ICV and smart city.The construction methods and innovative practices of real-time digital twin city for coordinated development of ICV and smart city were finally introduced.

    Key technologies and applications of C-V2X based vehicle-infrastructure cooperative autonomous driving
    Kun WANG, Zhenjiang DONG, Fan YANG, Guyue ZHOU
    2023, 39(3):  45-60.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023048
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    With the evolution of vehicle-to-everything (V2X) technology, autonomous driving (AD) has entered a new stage of development, called vehicle-infrastructure cooperative autonomous driving (VICAD).Through the integrated complex cyber-physical system formed by the deep integration of “human-vehicle-road-cloud”, cooperative perception, cooperative decision-making and planning, and even cooperative control can be achieved with autonomous vehicles (AV), enhancing the safety of autonomous driving and helping to overcome various complex traffic environments.The concept and overall architecture of the complex cyber-physical system of VICAD was firstly introduced, and a series of typical application scenarios, technical principles, C-V2X performance requirements, and functional and performance requirements of the VICAD system were proposed.It can provide a reference and solution for the deep integration development of intelligent networked vehicles and intelligent transportation in the next stage.

    Research and prospect of intelligent connected vehicle test scheme
    Dongsheng WU, Fengna LI, Ningxin XIA, Dacheng LI
    2023, 39(3):  61-69.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023039
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    The comprehensive test and evaluation of intelligent connected vehicles is an important guarantee for the safety of intelligent connected vehicles on the road and the smooth landing of the industry.Based on the test status, test technology path, test evaluation specifications and standards of intelligent connected vehicles, the overall architecture of intelligent connected vehicle test scheme was proposed innovatively in terms of meeting the existing road test requirements of intelligent connected vehicles and future multi-application integration.And the virtual simulation test, network connection test, automatic driving function test, large-scale concurrent test and interconnection test five business applications were elaborated.Finally, combining the practical application and industry demands of intelligent connected vehicles, the future development directions of intelligent connected vehicle test were prospected.

    Research and Development
    Digital twin based intelligent urban traffic forecasting and guidance strategy
    Xiwen LIAO, Supeng LENG, Yujun MING, Tianyang LI
    2023, 39(3):  70-79.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023047
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    As the technology of ubiquitous Internet of things and artificial intelligence improves by leaps and bounds, the transportation system revolution is flourishing and bringing new opportunities and challenges.Considering the defect in the existing navigation system, and the neglect of the temporal and spatial characteristics of traffic flow, the macro traffic network and micro vehicle network were modeled and their coupling relationship was mined.Then, a digital twin based urban traffic forecasting and guidance method was proposed to alleviate the problem of traffic congestion.The spatial-temporal traffic flow information was predicted through the diffusion convolution recurrent neural network, which was explicitly applied to the vehicle path planning decision.On this basis, a spatial-temporal collaborative deep reinforcement learning method was proposed to implement the future-oriented collaborative path planning of vehicles.It also guided the underlying vehicle twins to select the optimal strategy for the real world.With SUMO for simulation verification, the experimental results show that the proposed method is significantly better than the existing algorithms in improving the travel completion ratio and congestion relief, and can improve the efficiency of urban traffic travel.

    Research on key synchronization problems of mobile communication: technology, standards and testing
    Xinyu MIAO, Changjun HU, Hua CHENG
    2023, 39(3):  80-88.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023035
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    The synchronization problem in the existing mobile communication network was studied from three perspectives: technology, standard and testing.It includes the research on the synchronization principle of wireless side, the analysis of the impact of synchronization anomaly on wireless service, and the comparison and difference analysis of synchronization standards between wired side and wireless side, etc.Aiming at the above problems, the corresponding solutions were proposed, including wireless side synchronization performance testing, monitoring methods and synchronization standard revision, etc., to ensure the normal operation of mobile communication synchronization system.

    Physical layer security of full-duplex relay-assisted D2D networks under outdated CSI
    Jingjie SHEN, Guangqiu LI, Yancui LUO, Huizhi LIU
    2023, 39(3):  89-99.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023041
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    The relay aided device to device (D2D) network can improve the spectrum efficiency of D2D users and the physical layer security of cellular user (CU) by sharing spectrum with the cellular network.To further improve their performance, transmit antenna selection can be used at the base station and the relay node of the D2D link, and full duplex technology can be used in the relay node.However, due to the feedback delay and mobility, the channel state information (CSI) used for the antenna selection of cellular link and all D2D links may be outdated.For the physical layer security and reliability in the above scenario, security model of a full duplex relay aided D2D network was proposed in the presence of active eavesdropping and outdated CSI, in which the base station and relay nodes both used transmit antenna selection.The closed-expressions for outage probability, ergodic capacity, probability of non-zero secrecy capacity, secure outage probability, asymptotic secure outage probability of relay aided D2D networks were derived.The numerical calculation and simulation results show that the more the number of base station transmit antennas and relay jamming antennas are, the better the CU security performance is.The outdated CSI will deteriorate the outage and security performance of CU.

    Distributed high-efficiency entropy energy-saving clustering routing algorithm for SDWSN
    Qiaoqiao MA, Ligang DONG, Xian JIANG
    2023, 39(3):  100-114.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023024
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    In order to improve the life of software defined wireless sensor network (SDWSN) and reduce the energy consumption of data transmission, a hybrid optimization algorithm based on firefly algorithm (FA) and biogeography-based optimization (BBO) were designed, and based on the hybrid optimization algorithm, a distributed high-efficiency entropy energy-saving clustering routing algorithm (DHEEC) was designed, using energy entropy and hybrid optimization algorithm for cluster head selection.The simulation results show that the hybrid optimization algorithm outperforms other algorithms on standard functions.The number of death rounds of 10% nodes of DHEEC is about 13.89% higher than that of IFCEER, and about 41.05% higher than that of DEEC-FA, and the energy utilization is improved.

    Research on 5G service coverage capability before 4G carrier re-farming to 5G
    Guanghai LIU, Tian XIAO, Bei LI, Xinzhou CHENG, Yongbei XUE, Yi LI, Xiaomeng ZHU, Yuting ZHENG
    2023, 39(3):  115-123.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023044
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    In order to build a low-cost and high-efficiency 5G low-frequency network, it is necessary to study the best plan of plowing low-frequency 3G and 4G networks into 5G in advance.Under the condition of no ideal low frequency 5G test environment due to no re-farming, the coverage capacity after re-farming was estimated through theoretical analysis and was indirectly verified based on the current network test data.The key setting of link budget and model selection were discussed, the rationality of the estimation results was indirectly verified by the actual test data.The conclusion had been actually applied to the planning scheme of a major operator for the national 900 MHz network, which has essential reference significance to guide the network refarming.

    Substructure correlation adaptation transfer learning method based on K-means clustering
    Haoshuang LIU, Yong ZHANG, Yingbo CAO
    2023, 39(3):  124-134.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023045
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    Domain drifts severely affect the performance of traditional machine learning methods, and existing domain adaptive methods are mainly represented by adaptive adjustment cross-domain through global, class-level, or sample-level distribution adaptation.However, too coarse global matching and class-level matching can lead to insufficient adaptation, and sample-level adaptation to noise can lead to excessive adaptation.A substructure correlation adaptation (SCOAD) transfer learning algorithm based on K-means clustering was proposed.Firstly, multiple subdomains of the source domain and the target domain were obtained by K-means clustering.Then, the matching of the second-order statistics of the subdomain center was sought.Finally, the target domain samples were classified by using the subdomain structure.The proposed method approach further improves the performance of knowledge transfer between the source and target domains on top of the traditional approach.Experimental results on common transfer learning datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

    GAN data reconstruction based prediction method of telecom subscriber loss
    Kehong A, Xiaodong HU
    2023, 39(3):  135-142.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023038
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    Users are the core of operators’ interests.With the introduction of the policy of transferring network with a number, the competition between operators becomes more and more fierce.In order to accurately predict subscriber loss tendency in advance, a prediction method of subscriber loss based on generative adversarial network data reconstruction was proposed.Firstly, the dirty data in the telecom subscriber loss data was used by effective data preprocessing method.Secondly, the GAN was used to reconstruct the telecom subscriber loss data to solve the problem of the imbalance of the telecom subscriber loss data.Finally, extreme gradient boosting algorithm was used to train the telecom subscriber loss prediction model based on GAN reconstruction and the SMOTE sampling model based on synthetic minority oversampling technique sampling method respectively, and compare the prediction accuracy of the two models.The experimental results show that the prediction accuracy of the GAN reconstructed telecom subscriber loss prediction model is increased by 6.75%, the accuracy rate is increased by 25.91%, the recall rate is increased by 30.91%, and the F1-score is increased by 28.73% compared with the unreconstructed prediction model.This method can effectively improve the accuracy of telecom subscriber loss prediction.

    Engineering and Application
    Research on technical scheme of SDN intelligent management and control orchestration system
    Yanxia TAN, Guangquan WANG, Zelin WANG, Yanlei ZHENG, He ZHANG, Chenfang ZHANG, Sai HAN, Shikui SHEN
    2023, 39(3):  143-152.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023037
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    As users put forward more stringent quality of service requirements for the network, operators focus on the intelligent transformation and construction of various networks.Firstly, the current situation of software defined network (SDN) transformation and construction of various professional networks in the industry were briefly introduced, and then the problems existing in the transformation process were analyzed.Then, the scheme of SDN intelligent management and control orchestration system were proposed to meet users’ requirements for end-to-end service provisioning of cross professional services, and realize intelligent analysis of resource data at the network level to improve operation and maintenance efficiency.Finally, the service provisioning process of private line service and real-time alarming process and practice under the proposed architecture were introduced.

    Network information exposure based QoS prediction in tele-operated driving
    Yuhang JIA, Yixue LEI, Yipeng ZHANG, Yunfei ZHANG
    2023, 39(3):  153-161.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023011
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    The rapid development of 5G systems supports the stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements for many Internet of vehicles (IoV) use cases.However, there are still many problems in the adaptation of networks and applications.Network information exposure is a potential solution that also enables the network to provide real-time cellular wireless network information to applications, thereby helping service providers achieve better policy control and achieve an experience for users.A predictive QoS (PQoS) method based on network information exposure was proposed.Applications could respond in advance and improve users’ quality of experience (QoE) by predicting upcoming network changes.Firstly, the background of network information exposure and PQoS was introduced, and the research, standards, and implementation status of PQoS both at home and abroad were introduced.Then, a QoS prediction method based on network information exposure in tele-operated driving (ToD) was proposed, and experiments were carried out through actual test data and the feasibility of PQoS was verified through the evaluation and analysis.The results show that the QoS prediction based on the network information exposure can well support the application of some IoV, including 5G remote driving, which provides a reference for implementing the 5G system in the smart transportation industry.

    Research on intelligent scheme of telecommunication network
    Tao LI, Chunjia WANG, Shanshan LI
    2023, 39(3):  162-172.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-0801.2023042
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    The network of telecom operators needs to be promoted urgently in agility, efficiency and intelligence to realize its self-configuration, self-management and self-optimization.However, due to the inconsistent development route and technical characteristics between AI and communication network, how to deeply integrate AI and communication network is necessary to be considered systematically.Based on the development of the telecommunication network intelligence industry, and on the basis of the analysis of the needs of telecom operators for intelligence and the assessment of the status quo, the goal and technical scheme of telecommunication network intelligence were proposed, which covered the intelligent framework, intelligent functional modules and processes, data processing, algorithm model construction and integration.The scheme was helpful to promote the large-scale intellectualization of telecom operators and improve operational efficiency.

Copyright Information
Authorized by: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Institute of Communications
Posts and Telecom Press Co., Ltd.
Publisher: Beijing Xintong Media Co., Ltd.
Editor-in-Chief: Chen Shanzhi
Editorial Director: Li Caishan
Address: F2, Beiyang Chenguang Building, Shunbatiao No.1 Courtyard, Fengtai District, Beijing, China
Postal Code: 100079
Tel: 010-53879277
Mailing Code: 2-397
ISSN 1000-0801
CN 11-2103/TN
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