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    30 March 2020, Volume 4 Issue 1
    Topic:IoT and 6G
    On 6G and wide-area IoT
    Xiaohu YOU, Hao YIN, Hequan WU
    2020, 4(1):  3-11.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00158
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    6G technology is still in its initial stage of research.It is expected that in the next few years,the world will gradually reach a consensus on visions and key technical parameters of 6G .Focusing on the further expansion of application areas and further enhancement of technical capability,the technical fields were summarized that may be involved in the future 6G radio access,including the coverage expansion based on the satellite-terrestrial integration,millimeter wave and terahertz communications,data-driven network artificial intelligence (AI) and security,large-scale cooperation and cell-free architecture innovation,etc.On this basis,some important technologies,such as ultra-high reliability and low latency,full dynamic radio resource allocation and centimeter level precise positioning,which need to be further broken through in the wide-area Internet of things (IoT) based on the public mobile communication system were analyzed and prospected.Finally,the conclusions were given.

    Spectrum cognitive intelligent management and control for aviation 6G
    Dong LIU,Qihui WU,Quek Tony Q.S.
    2020, 4(1):  12-18.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00153
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    With the development of the ground-air-space integrated information network,satellite networks and ground mobile networks serve as space and ground fundamental infrastructures,respectively.While various aerial platforms such as drones constitute air mobile networks to connect space and ground infrastructures.As an important form of 6G,aviation 6G will include new types of air-to-air,air-to-ground and air-to-space communication and networking techniques.An important issue for aviation 6G is how to efficiently use spectrum resources.Based on the challenges of aviation 6G and electromagnetic spectrum space,a spectrum cognitive intelligent management and control architecture for aviation 6G was proposed,and the functions were elaborated of the four main modules in the architecture,namely spectrum cloud,spectrum control link,device spectrum software defined and spectrum sensor network.Three key technologies of spectrum cognitive intelligent management and control for aviation 6G were analyzed and discussed,namely intelligent three-dimensional spectrum space digital twins,3D spectrum intelligent decision,and rapid collaborative learning of spectrum mapping.It is expected to provide guidance and suggestions for the subsequent research on aviation 6G and spectrum intelligent management and control.

    6G oriented wireless communication channel characteristics analysis and modeling
    Chengxiang WANG, Jie HUANG, Haiming WANG, Xiqi GAO, Xiaohu YOU, Yang HAO
    2020, 4(1):  19-32.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00155
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    Based on the vision on the 6G wireless communication network,i.e.,global coverage,all spectrums and all applications,we comprehensively survey 6G related wireless channel measurements,channel characteristics,and channel models for all frequency bands and all scenarios.Millimeter wave (mmWave),terahertz (THz),optical band,satellite,unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV),maritime,underwater acoustic,high-speed train (HST),vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V),massive/ultra-massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO),orbital angular momentum (OAM),and industry Internet of things (IoT) communication channels were particularly investigated.The related 6G channel measurement and modeling results were also given.Finally,future research challenges on 6G channel measurements and modeling were pointed out.

    An overview of the CSI feedback based on deep learning for massive MIMO systems
    Muhan CHEN,Jiajia GUO,Xiao LI,Shi JIN
    2020, 4(1):  33-44.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00157
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    The massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology is considered to be one of the core technologies of the next generation communication system.To fully utilize the potential gains of MIMO systems,the base station should accurately acquire the channel state information (CSI).Due to the significant increase in the number of antennas,the traditional feedback schemes based on the codebook or vector quantization are faced with great technical challenges.Recently,deep learning (DL) has provided a new idea for solving CSI feedback problems in massive MIMO systems.It was focused on the key technologies of the CSI feedback for massive MIMO systems.Firstly,the background and significance of the CSI feedback were expounded.Then,a model for the massive MIMO system was established and the sparse nature of CSI was analyzed.Several schemes of introducing DL into the CSI feedback mechanism were introduced and compared in detail.Finally,a further prospect on the development trend of the CSI feedback based on DL was made.

    Key technologies of symbiotic transmission for 6G Internet of things
    Mingjiang WU,Xianfu LEI,Li LI,Xiaohu TANG
    2020, 4(1):  45-51.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00152
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    mMTC (massive machine-type communication) is one of the three major application scenarios of 5G network,but it is highly likely that the truly mature Internet of everything may not be realized until the future 6G network.In order to realize the deep immersive ubiquitous connection network,6G IoT will simultaneously provide all-round services such as high data rate,low latency,high reliability and massive connections.Firstly,the 6G was prospected and the technical challenges of 6G IoT were summarized.Then the existing physical layer transmission technologies of IoT were reviewed.Next,the promising symbiotic transmission technologies for 6G IoT were introduced and discussed,which enable the possibility that active transmission and passive transmission facilitates each other and provide a new solution for 6G IoT transmission.Finally,some possible future research directions were presented for symbiotic transmission in 6G IoT.

    Intelligent power control for covert communication in cognitive Internet of things
    Zan LI,Xiaomin LIAO,Jia SHI,Pei XIAO
    2020, 4(1):  52-58.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00148
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    In order to solve the security problem of cognitive Internet of things (IoT),an intelligent power control algorithm of covert communication in cognitive IoT based on generative adversarial network was proposed.Firstly,the covert communication optimization problem in the cognitive IoT was transformed into a dynamic game between the cognitive IoT user and the eavesdropper.Then,the generator imitated the cognitive IoT user,while the discriminator imitated the eavesdropper.The generator and the discriminator were constructed by the three-layer neural network respectively.Through the two-person zero-sum game,the learning optimization process was realized to achieve the Nash equilibrium,and finally the covert power control scheme was obtained.The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can not only obtain near-optimal covert power control scheme with rapid convergence ability,but also be more practical in the future cognitive IoT.

    Intelligent machine-type communication and network for 6G system
    Xu CHEN,Zhiqing WEI,Zhiyong FENG,Miao PAN
    2020, 4(1):  59-71.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00156
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    With the rapid development of smart city,smart manufacturing and other industries,machine-type communication has gained much attention of academia and industry.The extent of function integration and intelligence of machine-type communication network has become increasingly high,which imposes more stringent requirements on network delay,reliability,number of connected devices,peak rate,security and scalability.Based on analyzing the change of performance requirements,key technology and corresponding network architecture of machine-type communication network in 4G,5G to future 6G system,the intelligent sensing-communication-computation integrated network architecture was proposed for 6G machine-type communication network.

    Intent-driven 6G radio access network
    Yangcheng ZHOU,Shi YAN,Mugen PENG
    2020, 4(1):  72-79.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00146
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    To satisfy the requirements of full-spectrum,full-scenario and full-service networking in the future Internet of things,the intent-driven radio access network (ID-RAN) is proposed for the 6G wireless communication system to decrease the networking costs and save the labor expense,while enhancing the intelligent capabilities of the radio access network.Based on the artificial intelligence,network function virtualization and software-defined networking,the intents from applications,performance requirements and networking status can be translated to the configuration and optimization strategies by the proposed ID-RAN,which enables 6G work efficiently,flexibility and elastically.The system architecture of ID-RAN was proposed firstly,and then the principles and solutions of key techniques were formulated,including intent translation,conflict resolution,configuration trigger,performance evaluation and optimization.Meanwhile,the open software-defined hardware platform for ID-RAN was built,and the corresponding performances aimed for 6G were presented.

    Information freshness orientated wireless network design for 6G
    Ke XIONG,Huimin HU,Bo AI,Yu ZHANG,Li PEI
    2020, 4(1):  80-91.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00150
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    The development of the Internet of things has led to the deployment and application of various real-time monitoring systems (such as intelligent driving) and status update systems (such as industrial control).For the above systems,the freshness of information is particularly important.If the destination receives outdated information,it may reduce the accuracy and reliability of the system’s decision-making and cause severe security risks.In the future 6G network,the freshness of information will become increasingly important for information update applications.In order to characterize the freshness of information effectively,the academic world has proposed the concept of age of information (AoI).Recently,AoI has quickly become a new performance index and research hotspot of wireless systems.Firstly the research history of information age was reviewed.Then,the key issues of AoI introduced in different network models (such as single-user networks,single-hop networks,and multi-user networks) were analyzed.Finally the future research trend was prospected.

    Massive access technology in 6G cellular Internet of things network
    Feiyan TIAN,Xiaoming CHEN,Caijun ZHONG,Zhaoyang ZHANG
    2020, 4(1):  92-103.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00151
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    To realize Internet of everything (IoE),the 6G cellular Internet of things (IoT) network need to provide wireless access with low power,massive connectivity and wide coverage.Through the analysis and research on the massive access technology in 6G cellular IoT network,especially in combination with the sporadic characteristics of IoT applications,a new access framework based on the grant-free random access protocol was designed to facilitate efficient massive access with limited spectrum resources.The proposed framework consisted of two phases.One was joint activity detection and channel estimation.The other was data transmission,which was divided into two categories,uplink data transmission and downlink data transmission,according to the different directions of data transmission.Due to the uncertainty of channel state information at the base station under the massive grant-free random access and considering the low power demand of 6G IoT devices,two robust uplink and downlink access algorithms were designed by maximizing the system energy efficiency.Extensive simulation results validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm.

    Mobility management of the 6G satellite IoT:challenges and key techniques
    Weigang BAI,Min SHENG,Panpan DU
    2020, 4(1):  104-110.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00149
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    The satellite Internet of things (SIoT) is regarded as a feasible scheme to realize the vision of the “ubiquitous connection” in 6G.The relatively high-speed movement between the mobile satellite and the terminal causes service continuity problems.The mobility management technology of the SIoT was expounded.New challenges to the mobility management of the SIoT caused by the dual-mobility,wide-area coverage and non-uniform demand were analyzed.Key techniques of the mobility management of the SIoT in 6G from aspects of the mobility management architecture,prediction and enhancement were discussed.

    Blockchain empowered 6G
    Yueyue DAI,Ke ZHANG,Yan ZHANG
    2020, 4(1):  111-120.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00154
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    6G network not only explore higher communication rates but also combine with the emerging technologies such as cloud computing,edge computing,artificial intelligence,and big data,and use a new network architecture to achieve wider interconnection and interoperability across network and domains,and provide an intelligent,safe and efficient technical support for industrial Internet of things,smart cities,and intelligent transportation.Blockchain technology as a decentralized,open and transparent distributed ledger technology can provide strong security for 6G.The integration of blockchain technology and 6G network was studied.Firstly,the difference between 5G and 6G network and the challenges of 6G faced were given,and the research of blockchain technology in spectrum management,mobile edge computing and D2D communication was reviewed.Then,the integration of blockchain technology and 6G emerging network was explored.Thus,the technical challenges in terms of blockchain and the cloud-edge-device network,blockchain and federal learning,blockchain-based resource transactions,and lightweight blockchain for edge network were presented.The corresponding solutions were also given.

    Heterogeneous multi-layer mobile edge computing for 6G
    Pengfei WANG,Boya DI,Lingyang SONG,Zhu HAN
    2020, 4(1):  121-130.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00147
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    With the development of the Internet of things,multiple real-time applications will emerge in future 6G communication network.Driven by demands on low-latency services of multiple real-time applications,mobile edge computing (MEC) will become an important technology to improve the user experience and reduce the network cost.However,the computing capacity of a single MEC server is limited,which induces that it is difficult to meet the low-latency requirement of data processing for the computation-intensive applications.A heterogeneous multi-layer mobile edge computing (HetMEC) network architecture was proposed to jointly utilize the computing and transmission resources of both the cloud computing center and multi-layer MEC servers.By reasonably dividing and offloading computing tasks,reliable and efficient computing services were provided for edge applications.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm could effectively reduce the processing latency,improve the network processing rate and robustness.

    Intelligent terminal identification technology toward 6G
    Shida XIA,Jin XU,Xiaofeng TAO
    2020, 4(1):  131-138.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00159
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    The intelligent terminal will greatly expand the applications of 6G .However,it will also make 6G face with greater security threats.The reliable terminal identification technology is the premise to ensure the security of 6G networks.Firstly,based on the network architecture and terminal characteristics,the requirements and challenges of 6G intelligent terminal identification were summarized.Then,the development trend was put forward for 6G intelligent terminal identification.Finally,physical layer authentication was explored to achieve possible realization of intelligent terminal identity authentication mechanism in 6G networks.

Copyright Information
Quarterly,started in 2017
Cpmpetent Unit:Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China
Sponsor:Posts & Telecom Press Co.,Ltd.
Publisher: China InfoCom Media Group
Editor:Editor Board of Chinese Journal on Internet of Things
Editor-in-Chief:YIN Hao
Executive Editor-in-Chief:ZHU Hongbo
Deputy Editor-in-Chief:LIU Hualu
Director:LI Caishan
Address:F2, Beiyang Chenguang Building, Shunbatiao No.1 Courtyard, Fengtai District, Beijing, China
ISSN 2096-3750
CN 10-1491/TP
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