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    30 June 2020, Volume 4 Issue 2
    Topic:Blockchain Empowered IoT
    Data management based on blockchain and edge computing for Internet of things
    Guanjie CHENG,Zhengjie HUANG,Shuiguang DENG
    2020, 4(2):  1-9.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00165
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    The popularity of smart devices has driven the development of the application of Internet of things (IoT) technology,and the resulting massive amount of IoT data has brought challenges to traditional centralized data management methods,such as performance,privacy,and security.Therefore,a data management framework of IoT based on blockchain and edge computing was proposed to support the distributed IoT data management.The distributed storage and access control could be provided by the framework for the IoT data.At the same time,a set of the built-in encryption scheme was designed to protect the data security and privacy and safeguard the data ownership.By introducing edge computing,the scalability bottleneck of the blockchain the system was relieved.The processes of data storage and data access based on this framework were given,and the algorithm of the system implementation based on the smart contract technology was explained in detail.Experiments show that the IoT data management system based on this framework outperforms the traditional cloud-based data management systems.

    Discussions about application of blockchain in IoT systems
    Zhen GAO,Qimei CUI,Xuefei ZHANG,Xiaofei WANG
    2020, 4(2):  10-17.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00170
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    Blockchain technology has attracted wide attention in recent years,and many industries are trying to solve the reliability and security problems of traditional centralized schemes in information systems based on blockchain technology.However,the connection between the blockchain network and industry entities must rely on the Internet of things (IoT) technology.Therefore,combining the blockchain and IoT technology to solve the pain points of vertical industries is the current research hotspot.On the other hand,the development of IoT itself is also limited by the centralized architecture,and how to use the blockchain technology to solve the predicament of IoT is also an important issue.Although there are many blockchain related applications,some of them are actually not suitable for blockchain technology.Firstly,the proper logic of blockchain applications was discussed.Then suitable application scenarios of blockchain technology were introduced by typical case analysis.Finally,four common problems when combining blockchain and IoT were discussed.

    Optimized scalable Byzantine fault tolerance algorithm
    Sicheng HAN,Xiaorong ZHU,Xiuxian ZHANG
    2020, 4(2):  18-25.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00166
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    Blockchain is a decentralized ledger which provides trust to both parties which distrust each other in a transaction.Blockchain initially served as the underlying framework that underpins bitcoin and has increasingly become a disruptive new technology in recent years.Consensus algorithm is one of the core technologies of blockchain.Without a consensus algorithm,the state consistency among distributed nodes cannot be achieved.The practical Byzantine fault tolerance (PBFT) algorithm was briefly introduced,which was a commonly used consensus algorithm in consortium blockchain.An optimized and scalable algorithm based on it was proposed.The improved algorithm mainly reduced the algorithm complexity and allowed consensus nodes to join and exit the system.Simulation results show that the improved algorithm can significantly reduce the transaction consensus completion time and the number of communication times between nodes,so as to increase the throughput of the whole system while supporting more nodes and reducing the system communication overhead and CPU computing resource consumption.

    Dynamic spectrum sharing access technology based on blockchain
    Wei WANG,Zuguang LI,Qihui WU
    2020, 4(2):  26-34.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00168
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    The blockchain technology written in the smart contract has advantages of the enabling intelligent settlement,value transfer and resource sharing,which provides a new secure and trusted platform for the dynamic spectrum sharing system.Firstly,the application of blockchain technology in dynamic spectrum sharing was summarized,considering the requirements of spectrum sharing.The key problems that need to be solved when applying blockchain to the large-scale spectrum sharing system were discussed.After that,the key challenges were analyzed in depth,and corresponding key technologies and possible solutions were provided to the above problems.

    Analysis of cross-chain technology of blockchain
    Zhao GUO,Shuaiyin GUO,Shengli ZHANG,Lingyang SONG,Hui WANG
    2020, 4(2):  35-48.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00162
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    With the development of blockchain technology,more and more blockchain projects have appeared.Due to the closure property of the blockchain,different blockchains have become islands of value.The information interaction and value transfer problems between different blockchains need to be solved urgently.The cross-chain technology is to solve the cross-chain operation problems of assets and data between different chains.There are many attempts and developments on cross-chain technology in the past few years,and the major models of cross-chain include Hash lock,notary mechanism,side chain and relay technology,etc.The concept of each cross-chain technology was introduced,and the advantages and disadvantages of each cross-chain technology were summarized and analyzed.

    Secure vehicular digital forensics system based on blockchain
    Meng LI,Chengxiang SI,Liehuang ZHU
    2020, 4(2):  49-57.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00169
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    The emergence of vehicular big data has brought a great promotion to better understand characteristics of vehicular networks,grasp needs of users and improve service qualities.However,malicious users and criminals leverage vehicular networks to conduct illegal behaviors,resulting in a decline in the service quality and difficulties in determining the liability in vehicle accidents.At the same time,there are still some security and privacy issues in the vehicular digital forensics,such as the identity privacy of the data provider and the request control of the data requester.Therefore,a secure vehicular digital forensics scheme based on blockchain was proposed.Firstly,a data requester registered with a certificate authority and an anonymous certificate was obtained for the subsequent data uploading.Then,the data user obtained the public-private key pair and user key in registration,which were respectively used for the data requesting and data decryption.Only if certain attributes were held,the right plaintext could be decrypted.Next,a consortium blockchain was jointly established by several institutions with high credibility to record all data transactions.Finally,the security and privacy were experimentally analyzed,and the performance was tested based on the Ethereum platform.

    Anomaly detection and location of malicious node for IoT based on smart contract in blockchain network
    Haojie HUANG,Xiaoxiao WU,Gangqiang LI
    2020, 4(2):  58-69.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00172
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    With the explosive growth of the number of distributed devices in the Internet of things (IoT) network,the security of decentralized multi-agent optimization algorithm has become the forefront problem.The distributed algorithms in the IoT network are vulnerable to data injection attacks from internal malicious node because each agent locally estimates its state without any supervision.In general,the detection methods for malicious node run independently in each agent,inducing issues such as closed data,single points of failure,opaque detection processes,and so on.The proposed strategy considered detecting via an aid of blockchain technology and smart contracts in Ethereum to detect malicious node in the network.Based on the decentralized and multiple backup features of blockchain technology,the multi-site backup features of the blockchain technology enabled data sharing and avoided single point failure.In addition,the contract code,execution process and result of the smart contract were open and transparent,and the contract code and result could not be tampered to ensure that the detection process could be traced and verified.Finally,the average consensus algorithm was adopted as an example,and the proposed strategy was verified on a simplified IoT network implemented by Raspberry Pi.

    Research on distributed identity authentication mechanism of IoT device based on blockchain
    Chen TAN,Meijuan CHEN,Ebenezer ACKAH Amuah
    2020, 4(2):  70-77.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00167
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    Aiming to solve problems of the low compatibility and weak anti-attack ability of the Internet of things (IoT) centralized platform in the device identity authentication process,a blockchain-based distributed IoT device identity authentication architecture was proposed.The digital identity and related information were stored in the new block data structure,and a distributed IoT device identity authentication mechanism was proposed based on the cryptography related knowledge.At the same time,a device digital certificate issuance process and a detailed process of the identity authentication were designed.The security analysis of the proposed mechanism were carried out from the aspects of power constraints,device privacy protection,and ability to resist attacks among various entities.The performance of three aspects,which were security attributes,computational overhead and storage overhead,were compared and analyzed.The results show that the proposed identity authentication mechanism can resist a variety of malicious attacks,achieve highly secure distributed IoT identity authentication,and has certain advantages in the performance.

    Blockchain-based IoT architecture
    Shipeng CHEN,Bin CHEN,Mingjun DAI,Hui WANG
    2020, 4(2):  78-83.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00171
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    The Internet of things (IoT) architecture based on the traditional Internet is facing data privacy security issues,central server single point issues,and etc.Building a data security ecosystem is a challenge for the future development of the IoT.The decentralized autonomy,tamper-resistance and security of the blockchain technology are proposing a new solution to this challenge.An IoT architecture was proposed based on the blockchain technology as the foundation of a trust-free network,which provided an information-secure network service for the current IoT.Based on the decentralized characteristics of the blockchain technology,the proposed architecture could replace the client-server (C-S) centralized communication model of the traditional IoT to solve the overload problem of the central server and the data security issues.

    Theory and Technology
    Intelligent reflecting surface design for 6G-assited Internet of things
    Zhaorui WANG,Liang LIU,Hang LI,Shuguang CUI
    2020, 4(2):  84-95.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00160
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    In the era of the 6G cellular networks,the base station (BS) should be able to provide seamless connectivity for a large number of Internet of things (IoT) devices distributed in various areas.However,constrained by their locations,some IoT devices may possess unreliable communication channels to the BS due to the obstacles between them.It is a big obstacle on the roadmap towards the massively connected IoT networks in the era of 6G .To tackle this challenge,the possibility was studied to employ the newly emerging technique of intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) for enhancing the strength of the IoT devices’ signals at the BS.Specifically,the transmit power minimization problem in an uplink IoT communication system was focused on,where the overhead for channel estimation was taken into account.On one hand,for the case where the BS was equipped with a small or moderate number of antennas,an iterative algorithm was proposed to jointly optimize the user power allocation,the IRS reflecting coefficients,and the BS beamforming vectors.On the other hand,for the case where the BS had a massive number of antennas,i.e.,massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO),a low-complexity design of the user power allocation,the IRS reflecting coefficients,and the BS beamforming vectors was provided in a closed-form.Numerical results validate the great potential of IRS for enhancing massive connectivity in the future 6G-assisted IoT networks.

    Cross-domain task offloading and computing resource allocation for edge computation in industrial Internet of things
    Peng ZHOU,Jincheng XU,Bo YANG
    2020, 4(2):  96-104.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00143
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    In the industrial Internet of things,limited by the computing capacity of field devices,the task offloading based on edge computing can effectively alleviate the computing burden of field devices and provide low-latency computing services.Moreover,because the load of edge servers are different in different areas of the network,it is necessary to reasonably arrange task offloading and allocate computing resources of edge servers,thereby reducing task completion delay and achieving load balance.Thus,the task offloading and resource allocation for edge computing in the industrial Internet of things was studied,a cross-domain offloading model for computing tasks in the industrial Internet of things was proposed,and a mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem that minimizes task completion time was formulated.The problem was decomposed it into two sub-problems of resource allocation and task offloading,based on the characteristics of the two sub-problems,the optimal solution of resource allocation and task offloading strategy were obtained through iterative and alternating solution.The experimental results show that compared with the non-cross-domain strategy,the load imbalance of the edge server and the task completion delay are reduced effectively by the proposed strategy.

    Small passive object location tracking based on millimeter-wave sensing
    Ning WANG,Ke ZHAO,Anfu ZHOU,Huadong MA,Jianhua LIU,Ning YANG
    2020, 4(2):  105-112.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00145
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    Since the sensitivity of the millimeter-wave is very strong,the tiny movement of the object can also be sensed by the millimeter-wave as a spectrum change.With this advantage,a small passive object location and tracking method based on the millimeter-wave sensing was provided,which could achieve the high-precision positioning and tracking of target objects.Compared with the traditional active object localization tracking,the target object could not actively transmit signals and the target object was small in the passive object localization tracking.Thus,an effective mechanism was needed to distinguish and separate the reflected signal of the target object and the reflected signal of the background environment.A variety of methods were used to remove the background noise and the burst noise,and a good positioning tracking effect was achieved.The experimental results show that the proposed method can track the movement of a pen with an average error of 0.32 cm.

    Virtual network embedding algorithm based on consultant guided search
    Wentan LIU,Lei ZHUANG,Mengyang HE,Shuaikui TIAN,Yu SONG,Guoqing WANG
    2020, 4(2):  113-121.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00140
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    Considering at the problem of virtual network embedding,a virtual network embedding algorithm based on consultant guided search was proposed.The CPU of node,node degree and adjacent bandwidth were considered comprehensively,and the virtual network embedding was carried out with the meta-heuristic consultant guidance search.Experimental results show that compared with EAJTA-VNE algorithm and ANT-VNE algorithm,the proposed CGS-VNE algorithm has a higher request acceptance rate and revenue-cost ratio,and the embedding time in the context of low,medium and high resource demand of virtual network requests is shorten.

    Service and Application
    Construction of Internet of things customer data platform based on OLAP technology
    Yue GUO,Yue LONG,Xun ZHANG,Yang QU
    2020, 4(2):  122-128.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00141
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    At this stage,the Internet of things (IoT) customer business is developing rapidly.The management problems of weak customer operation ability have gradually exposed in the IoT industry,resulting in the low AP (analytical processing) value of customers,the low profitability and high operating cost.Therefore,it is urgent to enhance the massive data analysis capabilities of the IoT to provide data guidance for business development.To improve the customer value,big data technology,multi-dimensional analysis technology and massive query technology were used to make portraits of IoT enterprise customers,and realize the construction of the customer data platform with refined and efficient operation services.It was introduced how to construct the data operation platform from the aspect of technology implementation.

    Summary of wireless indoor positioning technology in industry Internet
    HANGE C,Weijie LENG
    2020, 4(2):  129-135.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.2096-3750.2020.00144
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    With the rapid development of industry in China,the manufacture needs technological change,and smart factory becomes the key during the changes.Smart factory needs the indoor positioning technology to position the staffs,the materials,the equipment and the vehicles precisely.The requirement of wireless positioning technology was analyzed in industry at first,then the multiple wireless positioning technologies were contrasted,and the development trend of wireless positioning technology in industry was proposed at last.

Copyright Information
Quarterly,started in 2017
Cpmpetent Unit:Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China
Sponsor:Posts & Telecom Press Co.,Ltd.
Publisher: China InfoCom Media Group
Editor:Editor Board of Chinese Journal on Internet of Things
Editor-in-Chief:YIN Hao
Executive Editor-in-Chief:ZHU Hongbo
Deputy Editor-in-Chief:LIU Hualu
Director:LI Caishan
Address:F2, Beiyang Chenguang Building, Shunbatiao No.1 Courtyard, Fengtai District, Beijing, China
ISSN 2096-3750
CN 10-1491/TP
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