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25 November 2019, Volume 40 Issue 11
Papers
SDN control and forwarding method based on identity attribute
Xianwei ZHU,Chaowen CHANG,Zhiqiang ZHU,Xi QIN
2019, 40(11):  1-18.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019232
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Due to the lack of effective data source authentication mechanism and the limited matching fields in software defined networking (SDN),an SDN security control and forwarding method based on identity attribute was proposed.Attribute identification and attribute signature were generated by device attributes and encapsulated in the group header.When the data flow left the network,the data was verified by the forwarding device to ensure the validity of the data flow.At the same time,attribute identification was defined as a match field of flow by the framework,and the network forwarding behavior was defined based on attributeidentification.A fine-grained access control was implemented by the proposed mechanism and attribute-based signature.The proposed mechanism and attribute-based signature implemented a fine-grained access control.Experimental results demonstrate that the method can effectively implement fine-grained forwarding and flow authentication,and the forwarding granularity is higher than that of similar schemes.

Predictive channel scheduling algorithm between macro base station and micro base station group
Yinghai XIE,Ruohe YAO,Bin WU
2019, 40(11):  19-29.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019217
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A novel predictive channel scheduling algorithm was proposed for non-real-time traffic transmission between macro-base stations and micro-base stations in 5G ultra-cellular networks.First,based on the stochastic stationary process characteristics of wireless channels between stationary communication agents,a discrete channel state probability space was established for the scheduling process from the perspective of classical probability theory,and the event domain was segmented.Then,the efficient scheduling of multi-user,multi-non-real-time services was realized by probability numerical calculation of each event domain.The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the algorithm has low computational complexity.Compared with other classical scheduling algorithms,the new algorithm can optimize traffic transmission in a longer time dimension,approximate the maximum signal-to-noise ratio algorithm in throughput performance,and increase system throughput by about 14% under heavy load.At the same time,the new algorithm is accurate.Quantitative computation achieves a self-adaption match between the expected traffic rate and the actual scheduling rate.

Modulation recognition method based on multi-inputs convolution neural network
Xiong ZHA,Hua PENG,Xin QIN,Guang LI,Tianyun LI
2019, 40(11):  30-37.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019206
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In order to identify the main modulation modes adopted in current satellite communication systems,a signal modulation recognition algorithm based on multi-inputs convolution neural network was proposed.With the prior information of the signals and knowledge of the network topological structure,the time-domain signal waveforms were converted into eye diagrams and vector diagrams to represent the shallow features of the signals.Meanwhile,the modulation recognition model based on multi-inputs convolution neural network was designed.Through the training of the network,the shallow features were deeply extracted and mapped.Finally,the signal modulation recognition task was completed.The simulation results show that compared with the traditional algorithms and deep learning algorithms,the proposed method has a better anti-noise performance,and the overall recognition rate of this algorithm can reach 95% when the signal-to-noise ratio is 5 dB.

Novel criterion function for minor subspace tracking based on Rayleigh quotient
Zhongying XU,Yingbin GAO,Xiangyu KONG,Boyang DU
2019, 40(11):  38-44.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019216
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Aiming at the lack of information criterion functions of sub subspace,a novel criterion function was proposed by adding a penalty term to the Rayleigh quotient.Through analyzing the properties of all the stable points,it was proven that the criterion function exhibited the global maximum attained if and only if the weight matrices span the minor subspace.A minor subspace tracking algorithm was derived by gradient ascending method and its global convergence analysis was also accomplished.Numerical simulations and real application verifies the correctness of the criterion function and derived algorithm.

Multi-service differentiated traffic management optimization strategy in cloud data center
Yaomin WANG,Xia WANG,Yi DONG,Lian GAO,Songhai ZHANG,Xinling SHI
2019, 40(11):  45-56.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019215
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In order to cope with the traffic management for multi-service differentiated in cloud data centers,improving network performance and service experience,the multi-service differentiated (MSD) traffic management model was designed that can suit operational requirements in cloud data center.Fibonacci tree optimization (FTO) algorithm was improved according to the MSD model.MSD-FTO traffic management strategy was proposed in SDN cloud data center.Simulation results show that the strategy takes advantage of FTO global optimization ability and multi-modal adaptive performance.Through the global local alternating optimization of the algorithm,differentiation traffic management schemes are obtained as needed,the problem of multi-services differentiated traffic management is solved in operator cloud data center that improve network performance and service experience in cloud data center effectively.

Fusion spectrum sensing algorithm based on eigenvalues
Wenjing ZHAO,He LI,Minglu JIN
2019, 40(11):  57-64.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019201
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Aiming at the problem of inefficient use of spectrum resources,a fusion spectrum sensing algorithm based on eigenvalues was proposed to effectively achieve dynamic spectrum sharing.The test statistics were constructed by employing the maximum eigenvalue,the trace and the geometric mean of all eigenvalues of the sample covariance matrix.The detection probability and false alarm probability of the proposed method were analyzed using the random matrix theory,and the analytical representation of the theoretical threshold was obtained.In addition,the parameter selection of the proposed algorithm was analyzed theoretically.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has better detection ability than the existing eigenvalue detection algorithm.

Image privacy preservation scheme based on QR code and reversible visible watermarking
Yuanzhi YAO,Feng WANG,Wenbo YAN,Nenghai YU
2019, 40(11):  65-75.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019220
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With the privacy leakage problem of image delivery in networks,an image privacy preservation scheme based on QR code and reversible visible watermarking was proposed.In order to preserve the privacy information including shooting time,shooting location and detailed description,the encrypted privacy information was stored in cloud platforms and corresponding universal resource locator was generated firstly.Secondly,the universal resource locator was encoded as the QR code and it was embedded into the cover image using reversible visible watermarking.Therefore,the access control for privacy information could be achieved.The visual perceptual model was utilized to select adaptive watermark embedding parameters to balance watermark visibility and marked image quality.Experimental results demonstrate that the good visual quality of marked images can be obtained and the embedded QR code can be correctly decoded.The proposed scheme can guarantee marked image quality and reduce the risk of private information leakage.

Method to improve edge coverage in fuzzing
Chunfu JIA,Shengbo YAN,Zhi WANG,Chenlu WU,Hang LI
2019, 40(11):  76-85.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019223
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Aiming at the problems of incomplete edge coverage,insufficient uses of edge coverage information and valid bytes information in AFL (American fuzz lop),a novel method was proposed.Firstly,a new seed selection algorithm was introduced,which could completely cover all edges discovered in one cycle.Secondly,the paths were scored according to the frequency of edges,to adjust the number of tests for each seed.Finally,more mutations were crafted on the valid bytes of AFL.Based on the method above,a new fuzzing tool named efuzz was implemented.Experiment results demonstrate that efuzz outperforms AFL and AFLFast in the edge coverage,with the increases of 5% and 9% respectively.In the LAVA-M dataset,efuzz found more vulnerabilities than AFL.Moreever,in real world applications efuzz has found three new security bugs with CVEs assigned.The method can effectively improve the edge coverage and vulnerability detection ability of fuzzer.

Cooperative interference power allocation in physical layer security under imperfect time synchronization
Wenbo GUO,Changqing SONG,Rong WEN,Hongzhi ZHAO,Youx TANG
2019, 40(11):  86-93.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019214
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In physical layer security,considering imperfect time synchronization,a power allocation scheme was proposed to maximize the system secrecy capacity.By analyzing the residual interference power at the authorized receiver caused by imperfect time synchronization,the optimal power distribution method was given,and the relationship between the optimal interference power and the relative channel quality was discussed.Theory and simulation analysis show that when the synchronization error is small,the synchronization error consumes extra power to reach the preset secrecy capacity,and the interference power increases with its increase.As the synchronization error increases,the secrecy capacity of the system gradually fails to reach the preset target,and may even drop to zero.

Sum-rate maximization in MIMO NOMA system with imperfect CSI
Yanjing SUN,Yang LIU,Jiasi ZHOU,Qi CAO,Song LI
2019, 40(11):  94-100.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019221
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In order to solve the problem of maximizing the sum rate under the constraints of transmission power limitation and users’ rates requirements,precoder and receiver were devised by combining multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) based on imperfect channel state information (CSI).To take advantage of successive interference cancellation (SIC) techniques to eliminate interference from weak user’s signal,each data stream of the strong user needed to decode the corresponding weak user’s signal.Since the problem formed was non-convex,it was converted into the problem with the difference of two convex functions (D.C.) by using semi-positive definite programming and first-order Taylor expansion,and a penalty function was used to solve the constraint of the rank of the precoding covariance matrix.The simulation results show that compared with the orthogonal multiple access technology,the proposed D.C.algorithm can improve system sum rate.

Algorithm of blockchain data provenance based on ABE
Youliang TIAN,Kedi YANG,Zuan WANG,Tao FENG
2019, 40(11):  101-111.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019222
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To solve the problem that the blockchain-based traceability algorithm mainly used homomorphic encryption and zero-knowledge proof for privacy protection,making it difficult to achieve dynamic sharing of traceability information,a blockchain data traceability algorithm based on attribute encryption was proposed.In order to realize the dynamic protection of transaction privacy,the strategy update algorithm applicable to block chain was designed based on the CP-ABE scheme proposed by Waters to achieve dynamic protection of transaction privacy.In order to realize the dynamic update of the visibility about block content,based on the strategy update algorithm,the block structure was designed to achieve the dynamic update about the content visibility of the block.The security and experimental simulation analysis show that the proposed algorithm can realize the dynamic sharing of traceability information while completing the protection transaction privacy.

Homomorphic signature schemes for single-source and multi-source network coding
Huifang YU,Wen LI
2019, 40(11):  112-121.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019219
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To solve the problems of pollution attacks of single-source and multi-source network coding,two homomorphic signature schemes for network coding were proposed.In homomorphic signature for single-source network,the message hash value was signed on the elliptic curve,then the message,hash value and the signature of hash value were output,and the receiving node could verify the signature,the elliptic curve signature based on homomorphism could resist intra/inter-generation pollution attacks.Homomorphic signature from pairings for multi-source network coding could resist pollution attacks,and the introduction of timestamp made it be capable to resist replay attacks.In the random oracle model,it proves that two schemes are all secure under the selective attacks.Analysis shows that two schemes can effectively improve the verification efficiency.

Ciphertext-only fault analysis of the SIMON lightweight cipher
Wei LI,Yixin WU,Dawu GU,Jiayao LI,Shan CAO,Menglin WANG,Tianpei CAI,Xiangwu DING,Zhiqiang LIU
2019, 40(11):  122-137.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019204
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The ciphertext-only fault analysis on the SIMON cipher was proposed by injecting a random nibble fault under the random nibble fault model.After injecting faults,every faulty ciphertext could be decrypted and the statistical distribution of all intermediate states were analyzed by the attackers.On the basis of the previous distinguishers of SEI,GF,MLE,MLE-SEI,GF-SEI and GF-MLE,four novel distinguishers of GF-MAP,HW-MLE,GF-HW and HW-MAP were proposed to reduce faults.The results show that the SIMON cipher cannot resist against the ciphertext-only fault analysis.It provides an important reference for security analysis of other ciphers.

Comprehensive Review
Survey of identity resolution system in industrial Internet of things
Yuzheng REN,Renchao XIE,Shiqin ZENG,Haoran ZHAO,Jiayi YU,Ru HUO,Tao HUANG,Yunjie LIU
2019, 40(11):  138-155.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019238
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With the development of the internet of things (IoT),5G and industrial technology,industrial IoT has become a new research field.Due to the specific requirements of delay,security and stability in industrial production,the traditional DNS has limitations to meet the needs of industrial IoT because of its single identity object,rigid resolution results,and weak security.In this context,how to provide efficient,flexible and secure resolution services for universal objects has become a hot area worldwide.Firstly,we discussed the design principles and key supporting technologies of the identity resolution system in industrial IoT.Then summarized and compared the existing identity resolution systems in detail.Next,the new identity resolution schemes in academic research were introduced.Finally,the core problems and the future research trend in this field were discussed.

Distinguished and Excellent Young Scholars
Multi-dimensional adaptive transmission technique for shortto-medium reach optical fiber communication system
Ming TANG,Xi CHEN
2019, 40(11):  156-170.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019237
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According to the features of short-to-medium reach optical fiber communication systems,three high performance adaptive modulation and coding schemes were investigated.In the first one,a new dimension,forward error correction (FEC),was introduced to the traditional bit and power loading (BPL) scheme,and the three-dimensional adaptive modulation and coding were achieved.The modulation format and FEC code were allocated based on look-up table (LUT).The proposed algorithm has lower complexity and higher data rate compared to the BPL scheme.The second one was also based on LUT method where one similar data rate with the BPL scheme was achieved using partitioned precoding,but peak-to-average power ratio was reduced up to two dB,and the power efficiency was improved.In the last scheme,probabilistic shaping QAM was adopted as the modulation format,and shaping gain and almost indefinitely fine modulation granularity were achieved at the expense of certain complexity.With adaptive partitioned precoding,without decreasing data rate the number of PS-QAM was limited to reduce the complexity.The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms the BPL scheme in terms of data rate and receiver sensitivity.

DL-assisted programmable multilayer network application awareness system for IP-over-EON
Zuqing ZHU,Jiawei KONG,Bin NIU,Shaofei TANG,Hongqiang FANG,Siqi LIU
2019, 40(11):  171-179.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019229
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In order to realize real-time and fine-granularity network monitoring and adjustment,and satisfy the specific QoS demands of various applications,a deep learning (DL) assisted programmable multilayer network application performance awareness system for IP-over-EON was proposed.The distributed network monitoring based on network application performance awareness was combined with centralized network management.The multilayer and fine-grained network monitoring was implemented by distributed network monitoring,and the data analysis through DL was performed.Experimental results indicate that by combining distributed and centralized processing seamlessly,the proposed network monitoring system can not only realize timely and automatic network control and management but also provide superior scalability.

Correspondences
Bidirectional authentication key agreement protocol supporting identity’s privacy preservation based on RLWE
Yatao YANG,Xinguang HAN,Jierun HUANG,Yang ZHAO
2019, 40(11):  180-186.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019218
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In order to solve the problem of identity privacy preservation between two participants involved when implementing authenticated key agreement protocol,a bidirectional authenticated key agreement protocol against quantum attack based on C commitment scheme was proposed.Through the design of C commitment function,the real identity information of two participants involved was hidden.Based on RLWE difficult problem,under the premise to ensure identity anonymity,this protocol not only completed two-way identity authentication,but also ensured the integrity of the transmitted message,furthermore,the shared session key was negotiated.After been analyzed,in terms of protocol’s execution efficiency,only two rounds of message transmission were needed to complete anonymous two-way authentication and key agreement in the proposed scheme.Compared with Ding’s protocol,the length of public key was reduced by nearly 50%.With regard to security,the protocol could resist forgery,replay,key-copy,and man-in-the-middle attacks.It is proved that the proposed protocol satisfies the provable security under the eCK model.At the same time,the protocol is based on the RLWE problem of lattices,and can resist quantum computing attacks.

Digital watermarking algorithm in SWT domain based on robust local feature
Panpan NIU,Siyu YANG,Li WANG,Hongying YANG,Li LI,Xiangyang WANG
2019, 40(11):  187-198.  doi:10.11959/j.issn.1000-436x.2019228
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Aiming at the challenging work to design a robust digital audio watermarking algorithm against desynchronization attacks,a new second generation digital audio watermarking in stationary wavelet transform (SWT) domain based on robust local audio feature was proposed.First,the first-order smooth gradient response of the low-pass sub-band coefficient was calculated using Gaussian filter.Then,the short-term energy was utilized to adaptively determine local feature audio segments for embedding.Finally,the watermark information was embedded into local feature audio segments with spread transform dither modulation.The experimental results show that the proposed approach has not only good transparency,but also has strong robustness against common audio processing such as MP3 compression and good robustness against the desynchronization attacks such as pitch-scale modification et al.A SWT domain audio feature point extraction method based on smooth gradient is proposed,which effectively solves the drawbacks of poor stability and uneven distribution of audio feature points,and improves the resistance of digital audio watermarks to amplitude-scale modification,pitch-scale modification,random cropping,and jittering attacks.

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Copyright Information
Authorized by: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by: China Institute of Communications
Edited by: Editorial Board of Journal on Communications
Published by: Editorial Department of Journal on Communications
Address: F8, You Dian Publisher Building, No.1l, Chengshousi Road,Fengtai Distict, Beijing 100078, PR China
Chief Editor: ZHANG Ping
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ISSN 1000-436X
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